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The Ministry of Science and Technology
People's Republic of China


N0.212 January 30,2000
  •  China's Top National S&T Awards
  •  New Academicians for CAE
  •  China's Tough Battle Protecting its Environment
  •  Large Downtown Relics Discovered nezar Yinxu
  •  Success for Three Ocean Maiden Expeditions
  •  National Status-quo Research Center
  •  International Engineering S&T Conference and Associated Exhibition


 China’s Top National S&T Awards

Lin Quan, spokesman of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, announced on January 4, 2000, that China will start to select candidates for China’s Top National S&T Award which is regarded as “China’s Nobel Prize”, with a bounty of Rmb 5 million for each winner. The result will be revealed at the end of the year.

Announcing the development at a news briefing sponsored by Ministry of Science and Technology, Lin Quan said bylaws for implementing Regulations on National S&T Awards has been enacted upon the issuance of the First Decree by Ministry of Science and Technology. Other awards such as National Natural Science Award, National Technology Invention Award, National S&T Advance Award and International S&T Cooperation Award have also started their respective screening processes.
As stipulated in the bylaws, Chinese citizens, either dwelling at home and abroad, or working for foreign invested institutions in China, may become the candidates for National S&T awards if he or she has achieved major S&T results independently or jointly with others, possessing independent intellectual property rights. He added that to promote high level S&T cooperation with scientifically and technologically developed countries and international organizations, Chinese Government has increased the number of winners for International S&T Cooperation Awards from 3 to 4 in the past to no more than 10 each year. He pointed out that the reformed national S&T awarding system is aiming at encouraging innovation, creating economic and social benefits and promoting industrial progress rather than an ultimate goal to winning the prize.

According to the reform plan for S&T awarding system published by the Chinese Government last year, no more than two winners will be screened out for Top National S&T Awards each year and President of the country will personally confer the certificate and bonus.

The said awards will be entitled to those who have made major breakthroughs at scientific and technological frontiers, or made outstanding contributions to scientific and technological development or created huge economic and social benefits in the course of technological innovation and high tech industrialization. The bylaws stipulate that in addition to their loyalty to the country and fine professional ethics, the candidates shall be the ones still working at current S&T frontier and engaging in scientific research or development activities.

The first prize of National Natural Science Award, National Technology Invention
Award and National S&T Progress Award are all leveled at Rmb 90,000 for each winner. The number of S&T awards offered by governmental agencies under the State Council have been reduced sharply from 68 to only 3 relating to national defense and security.

New Academicians for CAE

Chinese Academy of Engineering revealed on December 27, 1999 the list of 113 newly elected academicians in 1999. The total number of the academicians in the Academy has thus far reached 547.
It is briefed that covering a wide range of disciplines (31 primary disciplines
and 83 secondary disciplines according to state standards), the 113 new elects were screened out through a strict process from 822 candidates entitled senior engineers, professors and research fellows. Among the new elects, there are the ones who were chosen for the first time from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, which is believed to produce a positive impact on the S&T and economic development and social stability in the remote regions where minority nationalities live in compact communities. The newly elected academicians have been reconfirmed and approved by the standing committees of academic divisions of the Academy and the ruling presidium meeting.

China’s Tough Battle Protecting its Environment

At National Conference on Environmental Protection held recently, Xie Zhenhua, Administrator of China State Bureau of Environmental Protection repeatedly stressed, “No pollution making industries that are not in line with pollution emission standards will be allowed into the new century.” Xie pointed out that 2000 is a critical year for environmental protection efforts and we should win the tough battle so as to ensure the realization of national targets for environmental protection defined by the national 9th FiveYear Plan.

The environmental protection targets set up by the Chinese Government for its 9th FiveYear Plan period are mainly to control the emission of 12 major pollutants, standardized emission of all industrial pollution sources and standardized environmental functional areas in major urban areas. As shown by the statistics published by authorities concerned, at the end of November in 1999, the total emission of 11 major pollutants in the country has reached a level lower than the requirement with 74% of industrial pollution sources reaching the required standards, of which 56% of major industries have been up to the standards and 9 major cities in the country have also geared to required standards for air and water quality in their functional areas. Thanks to its comprehensive air pollution control efforts, annual days of grade 3 air quality or better have reached over 70%.

As briefed by Xie, environmental protection department’s focus this year will be on strict control of new projects so as to reach the objective of no increased pollution for increased output and shutting down small coal mines, small oil refineries, small cement factories, small power plant and small glass manufacturers so as to reduce the total emission of pollutants.

Before the end of this year, all pollution making industries in the country shall be in line with the required emission standards. Strict control measures suchas closing, transferring, output limiting and ceasing the production for pollution control will be applied to those who cannot meet the required standards.


China’s Major Breakthroughs in Polyploid Fish Breeding

Thanks to their concerted threeyear painstaking efforts, Institute of Life Science subordinated to Hunan Normal University, Changsha Pilot Experimental Base, Xiangyin Donghu Fishery and Zixing Pilot Experimental Base have achieved the technical objectives and targets defined by a polyploid fish breeding experimental project in China’s national 863 program. The said results have passed the acceptance check organized by China Biological Engineering Development Center.
Together with its collaborators including Donghu Fishery, Institute of Life Science subordinated to Hunan Normal University has for the first time in the world worked out allotetraploid (4N = 200) carps of genetic stability and natural reproduction capability. On the said basis scientists have also bred out sterile triploid carps of remarkable economic features. The development constitutes a major breakthrough for Chinese scientists in the theoretical and applied studies of polyploid fish breeding. Experts concerned revealed that the successful breeding of allotetraploid carps of genetic stability and natural reproduction capability is not only the first of its kind in fish breeding but also in vertebrate breeding.

Since the late 1980s, it took a decade of consecutive efforts for the research group headed by Liu Jun, academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, Institute of Biology, Hunan Normal University, to work out for the first time in the world tetraploid family with biological approaches. In 1996, the research project was listed in China’s national 863 program for its further development. As a result, a large base for tetraploid species resources protection and breeding was created. During the pilot experimental phase, 190 million baby carps were produced and remarkable economic benefits achieved through further expansion of the technique in 23 provinces and municipalities in the country.

As briefed by Liu Jun who is in charge of the project, so far the tetraploid carp has been reproduced to its nine generation. As shown by the random sampling of the nine generations, the new species is not only stable in its polyploid nature but also in its morphological characteristics, growth and development of reproduction cells, fertility and other related biological indicators. This indicates the appearance of a new fish species in the nature. Applied with genetic restructuring techniques, the new species is free from additional chemical and physical elements and possible safety worries raised by genetically modified species. Experimental carp growing has shown that the new fish is featured of fast growth, highquality meat, fine edibility, strong disease resistance, low oxygen demand and easy catch. As demonstrated by its biochemical indicators, the raw and fine protein and five types of amino acids of the fish are higher than those of ordinary carps. The new species has strong market call for its fine tastes.

China’s Internationally Advanced Polysillicon Production Technique

Recently China’s first industrial polysillicon production demonstration line of its own independent intellectual property right has passed the acceptance check organized by national authorities. With an annual capacity of 100 tons of poly sillicon, the production line is of internationally advanced level.
Polysillicon is an important base material for electronic information industry.Up to date, the world annual production capacity has reached over 20,000 tons.However, most large production lines with an annual capacity over 100 tons are concentrated in US, Japan and Germany. China’s own polysillicon production is far from its increasing industrial demand. In 1998, it only produced 60 tons with 85% of the domestic demand to be met with import.
Since September 1997, Emei Semiconduct Material Manufacturer have worked on and
eventually solved four major technical difficulties in producing polysillicon,which has made China in the internationally advanced position in the area of this technique.


Large Downtown Relics Discovered near Yinxu

Recently archeologists of Anyang Archeology Team, Institute of Archeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, have discovered a socalled Huanbei downtown relics of 4 million square meters near the renowned Yinxu Relics.
Not long ago, China’s authoritative experts made an onthespot investigation and believed that this is the largest walled downtown relics so far discovered in the country.
It is briefed that buried as deep as 2.6 meters underground, the new relics is located at the northeast external edge of Yinxu Relics and northern bank of Huanhe River. The relics is of a square shape with its four sides lengthened at 2230, 2200, 2170 and 2150 meters respectively. With a base width of 9.2 meters, the whole relics is of an area of over 4 million square meters. In the meantime, anumber of house base, wells, ash pits and graves of Shang Dynasty were also unearthed.

According to the relics scale, base and bronze ware unearthed nearby, experts believed that the relics is a large commercial town dated back to earlier than that of Yinxu Relics but late than Zhengzhou commercial town with its absolute chronicle date at 3300 years from now.
Wang Wei, Deputy Head, Institute of Archeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, briefed that the discovery of Huanbei Relics has greatly deepened the current studies of Yinxu Relics and shown that positioning of Yinxu Relics at Huanhe Valley is not accidental but on a well laid cultural basis.

Success for Three Ocean Maiden Expeditions

Yuanwang No. 3, a marine measuring and tracking ship smoothly anchored itself at Jiangnan Port after its successful marine measuring and tracking mission for China’s first spacecraft. By making an extended journey over three major oceans including Pacific, Indian and Atlantic, the said expedition demonstrated a break through for China’s marine measuring and tracking technology for lower orbit space vehicle.

Before this, Yuanwang No. 1, 2 and 4 had returned to their base successively. During the mission, 4 measuring vessels stood up the attacks of 7 strong typhoons and cold spell and successfully passed through many complicated dangerous regions such as Taiwan Straits, South China Sea, Singapore Straits, the Strait of Malacca and Angle of Good Hope. The mission had lasted for 259 days over a total mileage of 62,000 nautical miles (equal to three circles surrounding the earth).
During the mission, 4 ships had tracked 19 arch sections of the experimental spacecraft with a total cumulative measuring time of 150 minutes, 75% of the whole measuring coverage. The expedition has made itself a new leap in China’s capability of marine measuring, tracking and comprehensive testing.

National Statusquo Research Center

On January 9, 2000, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Tsinghua University jointly established the National Statusquo Research Center. The construction of the new center will be listed as a project in the CAS’s knowledge innovation project and Tsinghua’s development plan for a world class university. Both sponsors will provide financial and technical support to the new center.

Making full use of the two sides’ advantages, the new center is missioned to study major strategic issues and important public policies relating to China’s long term development in the 21st century and conduct integrated multidisciplinary studies; provide scientific research background and consultation for national macro decision making; and develop a brain bank for national high level decision making. The center will also promote the research and teaching personnel exchanges between the two parent organizations and joint training of graduate students, senior research fellows and management staff.
CAS has accumulated rich experience in its studies of national statusquo and published 7 volumes of reports on China’s statusquo, in which important views and policy suggestions on reform and development strategies were proposed. Tsinghua University has recently witnessed its improved studies in the field of publicpolicies and is of a unique role to play in personnel training.

International Engineering S&T Conference
and Associated Exhibition

Chinese Academy of Engineering will open its International Engineering S&T Conference and associated International Exhibition of Innovation Technologies and Products in October 2000 in Beijing. 11 governmental agencies and academic institutions including State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology and Chinese Academy of Sciences will be the cosponsors of the event.

In the meanwhile, the Conference has gained the support and confirmation of Council of International Academies of Engineering and Technology. The event will become an important development at the turn of centuries for both Chinese and international engineering S&T communities. The main theme of the Conference is: the impact of engineering technology innovation on economic and social development in the 21st century.
Being an organization participating in various academic activities and relevant
organizations of international engineering and technology community on behalf of
Chinese engineering and technology community, Chinese Academy of Engineering has so far signed Memos on S&T cooperation with Swedish Loyal Academy of Engineering, Australian Academy of Engineering and Technology and Malaysian Academy of Sciences respectively.

Founded in 1994, Chinese Academy of Engineering has witnessed steady growth of its expertise forces with 435 academicians on its list. 113 new elects announced not long ago have filled the organization with new blood. At present, there are 7 discipline divisions in the Academy.
Council of International Academies of Engineering and Technology is a major international organization of powerful influence in the world engineering and technology community. Up to date, there are 21 official members in the organization including engineering academies from both developed and developing countries. Chinese Academy of Engineering joined the organization in 1997.

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