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The Ministry of Science and Technology
People's Republic of China


N0.219 April 10,2000
    1.China's Basic Studies Targets for 2010
    2.China Enhances International Cooperation in Basic Studies 
    3.China's Research for “Past-Genetic Age”
    4.China's World Advanced MDI Manufacturing Technologies
    5.China's World Advanced Calcium Source based Calcium Studies
    6.Major Progress on Studies of Chinese Database System

China's Basic Studies Targets for 2010

Under the co-sponsorship of Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering and National Natural Science Foundation, the National Working Meeting on Basic Studies lifted its curtain on March 27, 2000.

Madame Zhu Lilan, Minister of Science and Technology, Li Xue Yong, Vice Minister of Science and Technology, Wei Yu, Vice Minister of Education, Bai Chunli, Vice President of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hou Yunde, Vice President of Chinese Academy of Engineering, and Chen Jiaer, Chairman of National Natural Science Foundation, made their respective speeches at the meeting.
The general working objectives for China's basic studies announced at the meeting are: surrounding the national strategic demands and international S&T frontiers; to enhance the sustained innovation capacity of Chinese basic studies on an all-round basis, forge a high quality talents contingent; to scale up world scientific peaks; to make remarkable improvement of China's overall basic study capacity and level; to achieve new major breakthroughs in some areas in which China has superiority; to create conditions for the development of national S&T innovation system and realize phase Ⅲ strategies of China's socialist modernization.

During the period from now on to the near future, China's basic studies will focus on the formulation of its 10th Five-Year Plan and long term plan for 2010; screening out and working on major basic research projects tailored to major national targets and demands; strengthening disciplinary development and optimizing disciplinary distribution; improving and developing China's major basic study bases; establishing an efficient and capable basic study contingent; strengthening basic study management and create policies and legal environment favorable for the mobilization of scientists' initiatives and originality; and adapting to globalization trend and enhancing international cooperative researches.
The meeting will also sum up achievements and experiences achieved in the past decade, analyze new challenges, new characteristics and new problems facing China's basic studies, discuss and work out basic study plan for the new era so as to promote the new greater development of China's basic studies. At the meeting some important documents such as Several Comments on Strengthening Basic Studies and National Development Outlines for Basic Studies will also be discussed.

China Enhances International Cooperation in Basic Studies

Li Xueyong, Vice Minister of Science and Technology, expressed at National Working Meeting on Basic Studies opened on March 27, 2000 that China would be an active part of global and regional bilateral or multi-lateral large international research programs and projects through governmental collaborations.
He added that China would like to be an active part of major international research programs such as Human Genome Program, Global Climate Change Program and Marine Scientific Drilling Program. China's basic studies in the next decade shall go along with the international development trend and take international exchanges and cooperation as an important approach to improve its own research capability.

It is reported that major international scientific programs relating to resources, environment and human health and large scientific experiments involving high energy physics and astronomy have become the mainstream of international scientific development.

Li said China would provide strong support to the international research programs initiated by Chinese scientists with Chinese superiority and characteristics such as South China Sea Monsoon Research Program, Integrated Ground Meridian Chain Monitoring Program for East Hemispheric Space and Environment. China will actively create conditions to encourage Chinese scientists, especially young scientists, to participate in major research programs initiated by EU countries and other international academic organizations while opening up some of China's basic study projects to the participation of outstanding foreign scientists. China will encourage Chinese scientists who are working on major national basic studies to collaborate with their overseas counterparts for exchanges and support China hosting major international academic conferences.
Li also expressed that China would encourage its research institutes to make bigger strides towards internationalization, establish Sino-foreign joint research institutions and research centers with international names in China, take a more active part in the collaboration and exchanges at international scientific frontiers, and establish Chinese research institutions abroad when conditions are permitted.


China's Research for“Past-Genetic Age”

Human genome sequencing with its proud name of epoch-making project in biological history will see an end to its decoding by the mid-2000. After that time, researchers will phase into a socalled “past-genetic age” calling for their more arduous and sophisticated efforts. Chinese scientists have occupied a due place in this cutting-edge field through understanding the functions of some decoded genes and fruitful studies of genome sequencing variations.

Facing the approaching of “past-genetic age”, Chinese scientists have launched studies covering different disciplines and levels. National Key Lab for Cancer Genes and Associated Genes chaired by Gu Jianren, academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences working for Shanghai Research Institute of Cancerology, have achieved major results on the interrelations between genes controlling the growth, acceptor, signal relay and cell decay of cancers. Endocrine Division of Shanghai No. 6 People's hospital have discovered certain interrelationship between polymorphous sites and the attack of diabetes and associated chronic complications. Chinese Academy of Preventive Medical Sciences and Research Institute of Labor Health and Occupational Disease have discovered through their long time tracking of steel and welding workers that people carrying CYP2DL genes are more vulnerable to being poisoned by manganese than those who do not have such genes.

In addition, Shanghai Research Institute of Cytology, of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Wu Jianxiong Lab of Southeast University have worked out the latest genetic chips.

As shown by statistics, Chinese scientists have published 1850 papers on genetic functions and genome diversities with 300 of them published last year covering pharmaceuticals, environmental science, forensic medicine as well as other different medical fields. Research approaches used by Chinese scientists and the level reached have seen little difference from that of their foreign counterparts. 

China's World Advanced MDI Manufacturing Technologies

On March 16, 2000, Project on MDI Manufacturing Technologies for an annual capacity of 40,000 tons undertaken by Yantai Wanhua Polyurethane Co. Ltd. successfully passed experts' verification and approval check. Yuan Naiju, expert member of the verification committee and professor of Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, expressed that the result was of great importance for it has broken up the monopoly of foreign MDI manufacturing technologies over the Chinese market and won the honor for its national industry.

MDI is a major raw material for polyurethane production. Each year China has a domestic market call of 120,000 tons for the material though Wanhua, the only domestic manufacturer of such raw material, is only of an annual capacity of 20,000 tons. In the 1990s, Chinese State development Planning Commission had approved four MDI projects all which died in their pregnancy for four major foreign transnationals refused to transfer their manufacturing technologies. Furthermore these four major transnationals have dumped their MDI products to China at a price 15%-20% lower than that in American and European markets.

In 1998, in collaboration with Qingdao College Chemical Industry, Wanhua completed its research and development of key technologies such as continuous rectifying and eventually worked out 40,000 ton MDI manufacturing technologies of world advanced level with China's own intellectual property right. The industrialization of the project will not only alleviate strong domestic market call but also enhance China's own MDI market competitiveness through technology export. 

China's World Advanced Calcium Source
based Calcium Studies

On the basis of 100 scientific experiments made by China's authoritative research institutions and renowned scientists, Chinese scientists have completed the entire processes from extraction, improvement and full testing of the socalled molecue calcium absorption theory, namely VC based L-threonic acid calcium realizes the efficient intestinal absorption of calcium through passive molecule absorption.

Studies of L-threonic acid calcium have shown that the said nearly tasteless white grains with fine solubility are of the function fully activating osteoblasts. As a major discovery in osteoporosis studies, the theory has solved long standing unsolved puzzles on simultaneous improvement of mineralization and collagen synthesizing of osteoblasts. Meanwhile, it is a major breakthrough for promoting normal skeleton growth and prevention and treatment of infantile rhachitis. In this context, Chinese Medical Association listed L-threonic acid calcium a major calcium treatment project for nation wide dissemination in 1997. In the same year, it was rated a new product at national level, passed the verification check of Analeptic Testing Center of former National Sports Commission and ISO9002 Quality Certificate and was eventually granted with Health Food Certificate issued by Chinese Ministry of Health. At the end of the same year, the former State Science and Technology Commission, State Administration of Taxation, Ministry of Foreign Economy and Trade, National Technology Supervision Adminis
tration and National Environmental Protection Agency jointly approved it a major national new product. At the end of February of 1998, it officially passed the testing and label confirmation of USFDA.

New Approaches for Eradicating the Cockroach

Chinese scientists have proved through their studies that the cockroach tachinid is the natural enemy of the cockroach. Researchers have successfully postponed the eclosion period of tachinid by one to four months through preservation of cockroach egg clusters stained with tachinid's eggs at lower temperature, which has laid a foundation for releasing tachinid at due time so as to kill cockroaches.

On the basis of their ten years of studies, a research team in Zhejiang Province have basically grasped the knowledge of cockroach species and their distribution in the territories. Studies have shown that cockroaches have found their exis tence almost everywhere with the only exception for natural villages located at a sea level of 1450 meters or above.

The research team headed by Hangzhou Municipal Quarantine Station have determined 9 species of 5 categories that are indoor cockroaches closely co-habited with human in the Province. Five species of two categories are discovered for the first time in the country.

On the basis of regular investigations of distribution characteristics of cockroaches in different places, researchers have found that hotels, restaurants, food processing plants, breweries and residences are major attractions needing prevention and control efforts. In addition, investigators found apparent geographical differences in terms of species and quantity though cockroaches are found everywhere in the Province.

The investigations have proved the fact that cockroaches in Zhejiang are carrying different pathogenic microbes with highest possession by black chest cockroaches.

In addition, experts found that cockroaches have a six-month active period under normal indoor temperature with its peak in July and become the least active over the period from December to the following March.

Major Progress on Studies of Chinese Database System

Studies of Chinese Database System, Its Language and Interface, a major project supported by China National Natural Science Foundation (NNSF) and jointly undertaken by Chinese People's University, Hong Kong Chinese University and Peking University, has passed expert's verification and NNSF's approval check. The result has paved a new way for the integration of system software and Chinese culture and addressing easy operation of database in Chinese environment.
At present, China's database market has been almost monopolized by foreign products. The database products provided and the languages used are basically developed in accordance with foreigners' thinking mode and requirements of overseas clients. The project financed by NNSF has laid an important theoretical and technological basis for breaking up the monopolized pattern. The said resultis not a pure localization process of western made software but a Chinese database system supporting, from its core to interfacing, Chinese way of thinking and
its unique cultural background, allowing users to work make inquiries in Chinese.

The verification committee chaired by Lu Ruling, academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, believed that the research result thus far achieved was of internationally advanced level with some new technologies on Chinese database created for the first time in the world.

No Withdrawal of Tax Refund for Foreign Re-investment

It is reported not long ago from China State Administration of Taxation that when a corporation restructures itself for the purpose of optimized operation, the tax refund will not be supposed to withdraw after foreign investor transfers his or her reinvestment to the companies directly or indirectly under his or her possession.

It is reported that the new rule stipulated by State Administration of Taxation is to address the issue whether a foreign investor shall pay its tax when he transfers his reinvestment to other companies under his control after enjoying reinvestment tax refund treatment in less than five years.
Foreign investors who withdraw the reinvestment through shareholding transfer shall pay back the tax refund from its reinvestment according to article 10 of “PRC Law on Income Taxes for Foreign Invested and Foreign Businesses”.

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