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The Ministry of Science and Technology
People's Republic of China

N0.227 June 30,2000
    * Huge Investment in Beijing Sand Control
    * China's Advanced Desertification Control Techniques
    * China's Breakthrough for Soil Erosion Control
    * China's World Advanced Aerodynamics
    * China's AIDS Vaccines for Human Body Testing
    * Tsinghua Life Science Hall(Weilun Hall)
    * China Naming S&T Concepts


 Huge Investment in Beijing Sand Control

As revealed by the sources of China State Forestry Administration, China will allocate a budget of Rmb 6 billion and more to control the sand sources attacking Beijing. Recent years have witnessed increasingly frequent sand attacks to Beijing area with 11 occurrences in a short period from March to April this year.

According to the experts' analysis, the formation of sand storm weather in Beijing is attributed to the scarce vegetation coverage over the sources area and dersertification as well as climate elements. Hunshandake sand land, Wumenghoushan Mountain, Hebei Ba- shang and desertification land in northern Shanxi that sit at the upper wind direction of Beijing blow the sands to Beijing with the help of strong winds and make the sand storm weather there. The desertified lands in these areas have imposed great threats to the environment of Beijing.

State Forestry Administration has recently worked out "Implementation Plan for Beijing Wind and Sand Sources Control Project", according to which China will, in the principle of earlier start, large investment and weighted control, place Beijing wind and sand sources control as the number one priority in the national sand control efforts in the next decade. Vegetation will be protected and 64.62 million mu(1mu=0.0667ha.) of land be reconstructed within the wind and sand source area. The investment will be mainly cover the vegetation protection, afforestation and the construction of tree sapling bases.

Upon the completion of the said sand control efforts, Beijing wind and sand source areas will see 43.69 million mu of newly planted forests and grasses with itsforest and grass coverage rising from current 20.31% to 32.19% by that time. In the meanwhile, the efforts will effectively curb the expansion of dersertification, improve the ecological environment of Beijing and Tianjin, ease wind and sand damages and reduce the air pollution.

China's Advanced Desertification Control Techniques

China State Forestry Administration announced on June 17, 2000 that many-year studies and practices have made China's desertification control techniques reach the world advanced level, capable of meeting the domestic needs for desertification control projects.

At present, China's desertification control techniques such as sand fixing plant, forestbreaks for draught areas, run-off forest break for arid and semi arid areas, air-born afforestation for moving sand areas and railway and highway sand resistant techniques have reached the internationally advanced level. The extensive sand control efforts over Chifeng in Inner Mongolia, Yulin in Shaanxi and Hetian in Xinjiang are the successful role models in sand control and prevention.

Acknowledged by the international communities, China's advanced desertification prevention and control approaches have become proven techniques absorbed by many other countries especially by developing nations. China has sponsored several sessions of international workshop on desertification prevention and control with the participation of trainees from 30 and more countries. China's advanced desertification prevention and control approachs have exerted great influences in the world.

It is reported that China's desertification prevention and control has seen some gaps from the internationally advanced level in terms of high tech applications. Now China is studying, learning and introducing the internationally advanced experience so as to upgrade the overall level of desertification prevention and control.

China's Breakthrough for Soil Erosion Control

The socalled nitrogen fixing plant fencing technique of the internationally advanced nature has recently passed the expert approval check organized by Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). It took 8 years for Chengdu Institute of Biology, CAS, to achieve the results at Ningnan County, Sichuan Province, with the support of the International Center for Integrated Hilly Area Development.

Nitrogen fixing plant fencing technique is to grow perennial nitrogen fixing trees of fast growth and resistance to cutting on hilly arable land at the same altitude so as to form a downhill vegetation belt composed of tiered plant fences. Other agricultural crops and cash trees can be planted in the between. As briefed by Prof. Chen Keming, Chengdu Institute of Biology, CAS, who is engaged in the studies, when the trees grow to 1 meter and above, its branches and leaves can be cut off to serve as green manure to improve the soil fertility or as stock feed. In the different climatic zones, the branches and leaves cutting in one year may differ from 2 to 5 times. The said technique is easy for application without the restrictions of area, terrain and land size and is a practical and sustained technique featured with little investment and numerous benefits. It is of importance to the improvement of ecological environment and agricultural productivity.

When practicing its strategy of reclaiming the farming land for forestry, China is facing the technical problems of keeping the soil from erosion while not degrading farmers' living standard and lifting their enthusiasm for the reclamation.

The new technique is a fine solution to both problems of soil erosion prevention and soil fertility keeping.

If the technique is applied over 11 million hectares of hilly land along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, a green security belt will be formed.

Up to date, the technique has been extended to 1400 hectares of hilly land in Ningnan and Puge counties of Sichuan Province. Chengdu Institute of Biology, CAS,has also established 60,000 mu of nitrogen fixing tree saplings base and the study and breeding fine back-up species are in the process.


China's Solution to Poultry Bronchitis

The Integrated Treatment and Control of Infections Poultry Bronchitis, a national priority S&T project, has recently passed the approval check by China's Ministry of Science and Technology in Chengdu. The infections poultry bron chitis, a threaten to the world poultry industry for many year, has eventually surrendered to the attack of Chinese scientists.

Infections poultry bronchitis is caused by viruses with a high infection rate under intensive breeding condition. As a result, it is extremely difficult to prevent and control the disease though it is one of the major diseases causing the greatest harm to the poultry industry. Each year China suffers an economic loss attributed to the disease worth Rmb 1 billion.

The project team for the integrated control and prevention of infections poultry bronchitis membered withthe experts from Sichuan Agriculture University and other higher learning institutions from 1985 started to
work on the solutions to epidemiology, testing methods and new vaccines. They sorted out the mainstream serum types carrying the viruses and their distribution in the country, created four new testing techniques and developed 5 new vaccines and corresponding suppor ting techniques. As shown by the experiment results collected from 65 large and medium poultry farms in China's seven provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, the said technology has basically curbed the attack and mortality. The
integrated control and prevention has reached the internationally advanced level with Rmb 1.5 billion economic benefits achieved in the course of 5-year experiments.

Experts believed that the result presented significant breakthroughs and innovation for epidemiological investigation, molecular biological studies and testing methods. The achievement has not only created a strong technical support for the sustainable, fast and healthy development of China's poultry industry but is also of important academic and practical value to the world poultry industry.

China's World Advanced Aerodynamics

Zhuang Feng'gan, academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Vice Chairman of China Science Association and renowned aerodynamicist, said recently in Mianyang, Sichuan, that China has ranked in the world advanced level in some areas of aerodynamics.

Aerodynamics is the basic science for aeronautics and space sciences. In the past seores of years, Chinese aerodynamicists had worked hard and constructed 2.4-m wind channels, the largest of the kind in both China and Asia with the strong integrated testing capacity, which attracted the extensive attention of worldaerodynamic community. In the meanwhile, aerodynamics has contributed to its due to the development of national economy by providing wind born and wind shaking testing for China's civil airplanes, automobiles, locomotives, high rise buildings, bridges and wind power generations, and created huge economic and social benefits.

China's AIDS Vaccines for Human Body Testing

Chinese made AIDS vaccines will be tested on human body next year. Relevant sources of AIDS Prevention and Control Center subordinated to Chinese Ministry of Health expressed that the vaccine would become a popular AIDS prevention vaccine if the testing result proves successful.

Nucleic acid based AIDS testing training courses co-sponsored by China and Japan opened recently at Guangdong Provincial Border Epidemic Prevention Station. It is briefed that the nucleic acid based testing technology is able to shorten the "window phase" of AIDS infection from 4-6 weeks to one week, which helps to curb the spread of the disease.

Shao Yiming, research fellow of AIDS Prevention and Control Center, said that the conventional AIDS testing was made through serum analysis. However, there is asocalled "window phase" of about 4-6 weeks for producing immune reaction after being infected. Therefore it is difficult to clarify the situation during this period. The nucleic acid based testing technique is able to greatly shorten the "window phase" so as to minimize the affection of AIDS viruses.

He also disclosed that Chinese made AIDS vaccine will be tested on human bodies next year and people may receive the vaccines in next 3 or 5 years if the result proves successful.



Tsinghua Life Science Hall(Weilun Hall)

Weilun Hall, a life science hall of Tsinghua University named after Mr.Li Guowei, a renowned Hong Kong industrialist and Chairman of Henseng Bank, and his wife was founded on June 18, 2000 at the campus of Tsinghua University. Wu Jieping, Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the People's Congress and academician of both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering, was present at the inauguration ceremony. Wang Dazhong, President of Tsinghua University, and Ms. Helen Yi, wife of Li Guowei, lifted the curtain for the new hall.

Recent years have witnessed the eye catching achievements harvested by the Dept. of Biology, Tsinghua University. In 1999 the biological research of Tsinghua University was selected by Ministry of Education and National Natural Science Foun dation as one of the three role model bases in the country. As shown by the statistics published early this year on Chinese S&T papers quoted, in 1998 the total number of SCI papers published by Dept. of Biology, Tsinghua University,!ranked the first place among the biology departments of other universities. These achievements and the inauguration of Weilun Hall have not only laid a foundation for the future development of life science in Tsinghua but also created necessary conditions for developing medical sciences and preparing for the establishment of medical school at Tsinghua University.

Of a floor area of 10,000 m2, Weilun Hall sits at the center of the buildings of Science College of the University. Recently major institutes and labs of the Academy of Life Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, have moved into the new building. They are Institute of Biophysics and Structural Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Cells and Development Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Institute of Biological Information, Institute of Medicines, Institute of Marine Biology, Institute of Human Genome, National Key Lab on Biomembrane and Membrane Biology, Open Lab on Life Organic Phosphorus subordinated to Ministry of Education, R&D Center for Biological Chips and Institute of Chinese Traditional Medicines jointly established by Tsinghua University and Hong Kong Jinhui University.

China's First International Seminar on Tibetan Medicine

2000 International Seminar on Tibetan Medicine, the first of its kind in China, will be held from July 15 to 17, 2000 in Lasa, Tibet. Tibetan medicine is an important component of Tibetan traditional culture and Chinese traditional medicine. With its classic works “Four Medical Codes” as the symbol of establishment, Tibetan medicine has a history of
1300 years.

Tibet medicine is of its unique theoretical system, rich clinic experiences and traditional herb resources. In the natural environment surrounded by the world highest peak and poor oxygen Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Tibetan medical scientists have creatively studied the relationship between men and nature with their own clinic experiences and learned knowledge of Chinese, Indian and Arabic traditional medical systems through understanding the pathology of human body from different
angles, exploring the mechanism and rules of disease prevention and treatment, seeking for effective medical and non-medical therapies and publishing numerous medical works. The ancient Tibetan medical literatures on the bookshelf have reached 300 and odd types, an academic miracle for the world medical history.

In the last two decades, Chinese national medical industry has gained restoration and development. As far as Tibetan medicine is concerned, a complete system composed of medical treatment, teaching and research has been established and the production of Tibetan medical drugs is in the process of modernization. Tibetan medical colleges have been established in Tibet and Qinghai respectively with departments or majors studying Tibetan medicines established in Chinese traditional medical colleges in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan. There are now 57 Tibetan medical hospitals and 3 institutes of Tibetan medicines with a population of 3000 and more researchers on Tibetan medicines. Recent years have witnessed the spread of Tibetan medicines over the whole country and it has become one of pillar industries attracting most attention in the great west development.

2000 International Seminar on Tibetan Medicine is co-sponsored by Chinese Association for National Medical Sciences, Dept. of Health of Tibetan Autonomous Region and Tibetan Medical College. Up to date, 500 and odd papers have been received.

50 foreign participants from UK, Germany, France, Italy, India, Nepal, Russia and US are invited to attend the meeting. In addition, 60 representatives from Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao and 250 participants from China mainland will also be present.

China Naming S&T Concepts

Along with the accelerated paces of S&T advance, Chinese scientists will speed up the naming process for S&T concepts so as to unify Chinese S&T terminologies both in Chinese and English.

It is reported that being an agency authorized by the State Council, National S&T Terminology Committee will in the future several years work hard on defining scientific terms in the fields of medical sciences, machinery, ecology, aquatic culture, natural dialectics and etc.

It is briefed that two existing major defects have restricted and affected the extension and application of 150,000 standardized S&T terms thus far defined. They are: definitions for only limited amount of terms with most undefined; and limited entries and small quantity of new terms.

To make up, the National S&T Terminology Committee will speed up its efforts naming S&T concepts with definitions. On the one hand it will organize experts to open up new disciplinary fields and update S&T terminology system. Weighted attention will be paid to defining the scientific terms relating to national economy and sustainable development strategy such as management science, environment, telecommunication, materials, Chinese traditional medicine, energy and etc. On the
basis of investigations, disciplinary terminology approval committees shall be established. On the other hand, new terminology definition shall focus on infor mation science, life science and sciences and technologies emerged in the 21st century. Each season shall see the birth of a group of new terminologies so as to guide and serve the society.

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