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The Ministry of Science and Technology
People's Republic of China

N0.237 October 10,2000
    * China's S&T Strength Enhanced 
    * Rich Harvests for Major S&T Solutions 
    * Golden Eye on River Sources Ecology
    * China's Nanometer Drugs Against Infections
    * China's Nanometer Diagnosis of Liver Cancers
    * China's Solution to Non-linear Acoustic Problems
    * Major Results on Animal Milk Gland Reactor

China's S&T Strength Enhanced

China's basic scientific studies have reaped bumper harvests since the implementation of the 9th Five-Year Plan with the vigorous development of high technologies and associated industries. The successful experimental flight of China's first manned space shuttle, the debut of the earth resources satellite and the improvement of launching techniques have hallmarked a new stage raised by China's space S&T activities. The successful development of the supercomputer system landing a floating point speed at 300 billion times per second has displayed China's
world advanced supercomputer technologies. The construction and operation of large scientific projects have greatly enhanced China's S&T strength.

A great number of high tech research results such as rice genome chart, animal genetic modification technology, genetic engineering drugs and the breakthrough in vaccine technologies have marked that China has basically mastered the major sophisticated biotechnologies available in the world with their overall level approaching that of the developed nations and ranking in the first in Asia and among the developing nations.

In the field of information technology, the breakthrough has been made in mass parallel computation processing technologies of internationally advanced level in the 1990s. The supercomputer Shenzhou has crossed the threshold of 10 billion times per second and Dawning series computers have performed the first theoretical calculations for the consolidated electronic structures of natural macro biological molecules, which caused a stir in the world. The successful diving of Chinese made marine robot to the depth of 6000m has made China possess the capacity of mapping 97% of the world ocean floors. The research and development of artificial crystals in the field of new materials has made China remain in the world advanced position.

Research results derived from Major Technical Solutions listed in the 9th Five-Year S&T Plan have promoted the development of products of China's own intellectual property rights: the successful development of the high resolution TV prototype machine has made China the fourth country after Japan, US, and Europe possessing the independent intellectual property rights over the system. The research on HJD-04 programmed switchers has stimulated the development of high performance programmed digital switchers of independent intellectual property rights. The said switching system has occupied 50% and more of domestic market shares. The breakthroughs in the key technologies of manufacturing new hydrogen storing alloy and nickel hydrogencells have led to 10 and more invention patents with the volume of Chinese made AA nickel-hydrogen cells exceeding 1500 mA per hour, making China the third in the field in the world. The development of geographic information system software and its diffusion have broken up the monopoly by overseas manufactures over the Chinese market.

During the 9th Five-Year Plan period, China has established 180 and more national engineering research centers with priorities on strengthening the engineering process and system integration of technologies, reducing the risks of results spin-off, shortening the spin-off cycle, and improving S&T conditions and environment through upgrading the facilities and equipments of S&T infrastructures. Each year the central authorities invest nearly Rmb 200 million in upgrading the facilities and equipment serving for major scientific researches. In the meanwhile, national key labs have been established and priority support rendered for 100 selected universities each year. During the same period, Pandeng Program has selected 59 pre-study projects and 10 dedicated topics by pumping into an in vestment of Rmb 365 million.

Other major scientific activities organized during the period are: China earth crust movement observation network, Lanzhou heavy ion accelerator, cooling storage rings, large sky area multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescope(LAMOST) and national agricultural crops' genetic resources project. These major S&T activities have greatly enhanced China's S&T strength.

Rich Harvests for Major S&T Solutions

It is reported that there are 20 agriculture related projects in Major S&T Solutions for the 9th Five-Year Plan. The implementation of these projects have laid S&T basis for the sustainable development of efficient agriculture with remarkable economic growth reached in the field. The detailed examples are: the breakthroughs in a group of key technologies have increased the economic benefits by Rmb40 billion over China's five major grain production bases. 35 new species have been bred out by taking advantage of biotechnologies, which increased the grain yield 2.7 billion kilos. Pesticides making has also seen enjoyable results — seven new chemical compounds have been introduced in field experiments with an extended application area reaching 30 million mu on a cumulative basis and the extension is expected to go up to 50 million mu by 2000, which will work out a rice yield increase of 3.5 billion kilos. The diffusion and applications of agricultural information process has further accelerated the promotion of agricultural S&T results and contributed to the remarkable ascending yields of grains and cash crops in farming demonstration areas. It is briefed that the National Torch Program has established 100 national Sparkle technology intensive zones. During the
period, 30 million person/time have received training on a cumulative asis and 50,000 Sparkle demonstration projects been arranged, of which 5000 are at national level.

During the same period, 147 industrial projects have been implemented under Major S&T Solutions and a great number of S&T results achieved have found their applications in production activities, which has greatly enhanced the innovation capacity of traditional industries. For examples, the development and application demonstration of CAD have led to the establishment of 600 and more CAD application demonstration enterprises. The development of efficient continuous casting has derived a series of key equipment and techniques of international competitiveness and fine localization. The research on special steel for sedan car has seen success and China's first automatic pressing and casting line for sedan car's large covering parts has found successful applications in No. 1 Auto Manufacturer. The research on efficient integrated benefication technologies and facilities has worked out solutions to the common and general problems encountered in mining. Rail passenger tickets booking and reservation system have been improved through the development of relevant application software and its applications have dominated 80% of the booking and reservation activities in the system. R&D and applications of CIMS have not only led to the honor of SME university and industrial awards representing the highest in the field but also introduced advanced management and technical means into enterprises, greatly enhancing the intensive level of industrial operation and the capacities in products design, development, manufacturing and market response, and hence greatly improving the comprehensive competitiveness of those enterprises.

The breakthroughs in and applications of marine monitoring techniques marked China's marine management entering the digital era. Shanghai witnessed the establishment of China's first 3-D regional marine environment testing system. The system is of importance to improving the capacity of disasters prevention and preparedness in the east coastal area and developing regional marine economies. In the mean while, National S&T Results Diffusion Program has selected 1494 projects for priority diffusions and they have played an important role in accelerating the translation of S&T results into practical productivity and upgrading the technical levels of traditional industries.

Golden Eye on River Sources Ecology

The socalled West Golden Eye Action, a nickname for the remote west ecological environment monitoring network system approved by the authorities recently has started its investigations into the background data of the ecological environment of river and lake sources. West Golden Eye Action will conduct, with the help of satellite based remote sensing and ground observation techniques, the investigations on land, pasture, forestry, land and water resources. It will also complete the near range dynamic monitoring of the ecological environment of river and lake sources, analysis of the degradation of pasture resources and study of the variations of water resources so as to create conditions for the establishment of dynamic monitoring system. In the meanwhile they will establish a background basic database on the ecological environment of river and lake sources by taking advantage of scientific data well collected recently so as to provide support for future relevant scientific studies.

As expressed by Yin Qingjun, the project head with Qinghai Satellite based Remote Sensing Center, the Action is a major project in the field of information construction under the National 863 Program. Its concerns over the ecological status of river and lake sources is only part of the project. The whole project will work on the remote ecological environment monitoring of three tiered scopes consisting of the west, region and provinces for the pre-stage efforts (2000-2005) of the west development, focusing on dynamic monitoring of land, forestry resources,desertification and quantitative analysis of west water resources potentials. In the meanwhile, it is going to analyze the impacts of the west development on resources, ecology and environment, identify problems, propose solution strategies and provide direct scientific evidence for the governmental macro decision making. The project on returning the farming land to forests and grasses being implemented in the west is under the said monitoring.


China's Nanometer Drugs Against Infections

On the basis of their many-year painstaking studies, Profs. Zhu Hongjun and Jiang Jianhua and others have recently developed powder grains at nanometer level.

As shown by the testings of authoritative institutions such as the Institute of Microorganism under Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Chinese Academy of Preventive Medical Sciences, these brown-colored grains with a diameter of 25 nanometers are of strong inhibiting and killing effects on colibacillus and staphylococcus aureus. Being a brand new anti-infection raw material, the nanometer grains have many properties different from those of other anti-infection drugs such as wide spectrum, hydrophilic and environment friendliness. Extracted from pure natural minerals, the materials will not nurture drug resistance.

The clinical studies of Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences have shown that the recipient animals showed no intoxication symptoms even under the effect of dose applications 4000 times the normal.

Anti viruses nanometer grains are of repairing functions targeted on damaged cells. It is worth noting that their viruses killing effects are enhanced when the grains are mixed with water, which makes them more desirable for diseas treatment.

Under the support of Anxin Nanometer Biotech Co. Ltd., scientists have successfully developed nanometer grains based medical products for wound or ulcer healing and put them into mass production.

Experts believed that the anti-viruses nanometer grains can be applied in wide areas such as environmental protection, textile and garment making, fruits freshness keeping, dietic hygene It is reported the invention has been granted with China's national patent and is in the process of going through the approval by US FDA.

China's Nanometer Diagnosis of Liver Cancers

In collaboration with some other research institutions, Prof. Chen Li- ying, anexpert with Division of Radioactivity, No.2 Clinical Hospital subordinated to Chinese Medical University has applied nanometer grains in medical studies. On the basis of four-year studies, she and her collaborators have recently finalized their studies on paramagnetic iron oxide super grains and hence introduced the application of nanometer technology in live cancer diagnosing.

It is reported that the studies headed by Chen Liying on paramagnetic iron oxide super grains in 1996 has applied nanometer technology offered by Institute of Metallography under Chinese Academy of Sciences. The animal based experiments have shown that the research result can be used to locate the liver tumor of a diameter of under 3mm, which opened an important path to earlier diagnosis and treatment of liver cancers. It is reported that with its fine merits such as low cost and simple application, the technology, once applied in clinical environment, will make liver cancer diagnosing at earlier stage much easier.

China's Solution to Non-linear Acoustic Problems

It was reported not long ago from PLA Institute of Logistics Engineering that Prof. Deng Mingxi working for the Dept. of Basic Courses of the Institute was invited by Australian Academy of Sciences to complete his experiment on compound structures non-linear acoustic resonance theory, which provided a solution to the world wonder on non-linear acoustics.

Thanks to his more than a decade studies on non-linear acoustics, Prof. Deng has established the mathematics model and analytical solutions on compound structure non-linear acoustic resonance by taking advantage of the principle that base wave and harmonic wave may produce resonance and on the basis of his extensive experiments, which has worked out a fundamental solution to the international acoustic wonder and laid a firm foundation for the applied research.

It is reported that the new theory can be used to assess the operational life of products made of compound structure materials, especially the space and aeronautic materials and exercise earlier and no-injury detection and prevention of fatigue, defects, cracks and detaching. In comparison to the existing magnetic injury detecting and supersonic means, the new approach is more sensitive, accurate and effective.

Major Results on Animal Milk Gland Reactor

The project team on “biological animal milk gland reactor” under the National 863 Program announced on September 24, 2000 that the studies on biological animal milk gland reactor jointly undertaken by Shenzhen Municipal Government, Biotechnology Engineering Center under the Ministry of Science and Technology and Chinese Agriculture University have achieved important results after their 3-year painstaking efforts. Under the studies, seven rabbits containing human growth genes were successfully bred in Shenzhen with a group of cows and goats receiving genetically modified fetus waiting for the final testing. The said study is aimed at consolidating the genetically modified genes into animal fetus so as to produce animals whose milk contain different proteins needed by human. In this sense, the animal milk gland becomes an efficient protein producing machine turning out biotechnical products for rare medicine and farming applications of great commercial application values.

China's First 220mm Non-crystal Strips

On September 20, 2000, Beijing Academy of Iron and Steel applauded for 220mm non-crystal strips with fine surface quality rolling off its thousand-ton non-crystal strips production line, which marks China has reached the internationally advanced level in this area. It is reported that at the present stage only US in the world is able to produce non-crystal strips with the maximum width up to 217mm.

The distribution transformer cored with non-crystal alloy material is of bright energy efficiency perspectives offering a dead loss of only 60%-80% against the one ensured by the silicon steel cored transformer of the same volume. In addition to its energy saving properties, the non-crystal material present its environment friendly nature through decreasing power consumption and hence reducing fuel consumption in the course of generating power. As a result, the emissions of CO2, SO2 and NOx will be reduced. In this context, non-crystal materials are deemed as green environment friendly materials in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. Non-crystal materials are also the key elements for the development of high technologies such as electronics, computer science and telecommunication.

Up to date, the domestic market share of non-crystal strips manufactured by Beijing Academy of Iron and Steel has accounted for 70% and above. The successful manufacturing of 220mm non-crystal strips has made China realize a big leap in its non-crystal material manufacturing techniques and equipment.

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