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The Ministry of Science and Technology
People's Republic of China

N0.254 March 30,2001

* Enhanced Input in Original S&T Innovations

* China's Photoelectric Tech Abreast World Level

* Yuan Longping's New Targets

* China's Extracorporal Skin Making

* China's Major Breakthroughs in FootMouth Studies

* China’s Ecological Function Conservation Zones

* China's Garbage Backfiring Disposal Technique


Enhanced Input in Original S&T Innovations

Chinese Authorities will start from this year to gradually enhance its financial  input in basic studies, newly emerging sciences, cutting edge topics and cross disciplinary research, encouraging the original innovations. At the end of the 10th FiveYear Plan period(2001-2005), each year will see 4500 projects be financed with an average input of Rmb 300,000, doubling what they had in 2000.

It is reported that Chinese National Natural Science Foundation has constituted a flagship channel financing basic studies. In the past 15 years, it has rendered great contributions to stimulating China's S&T cause and its financial support  has helped six basic studies whose achievements were rated China's top ten in 2000. Of 22 Chinese academic papers published in the world renowned journals such  as Sciences and Nature, 17 were financially favored by the Foundation. The machinery identification studies chaired by Prof. Wu Wenjun who was honored of the n ational top S&T award has been financed by the Foundation since 1987 with a tota l amount of Rmb 9 million. 

Chen Jia'er, Chairman of National Natural Science Foundation stated that to crea te a financial environment favoring original innovations, the Foundation will further balance the relationship between the socalled point and area, and ensure 60% of its funding to go to free applications and gradually increase the financing and consecutive financing proportions.

China's Photoelectric Tech Abreast World Level

At the right beginning of its foundation, Chinese National 863 Program has attac hed great importance to the studies of photoelectric technologies and established a dedicated expert panel. In the past 15 years, Chinese photoelectric community has, on the basis of orientations defined by 863 Program on photoelectric development, landed breakthroughs in the key technologies such as quantum well mater ial and components, DFB laser device, integrated photoelectric chips and photonic chips and worked out several dozens of key components applied in highspeed o p tical telecommunication, memory and display. These developments have broken up the monopoly of the semiconductor laser devices and fiberoptic amplifiers manuf actured abroad. With the support of 863 Program, six photoelectric research resu lts spinoff and industrialization bases including Beijing, Changchun, Shijiazhu ang, Shanghai, Wuhan and Shenzhen have witnessed fast growth with their industrial output value reaching Rmb 1 billion in 2000 on a humble startoff basis of R mb 18 million. 

Prof. Xie Shizhong of Tsinghua University and the chair of photoelectric topic u nder National 863 Program said that China's photoelectric development has basically kept abreast with the world level with some lagging behind the world advanced level two to five years though with some others having reached it.

Yuan Longping's New Targets

The super rice study team headed by Yuan Longping, the Father of hybrid rice wil l strive to hit its phase II super rice research targets in 5 years. The new targets are: strive to land breakthroughs in seeds breeding and growing techniques In a period of 3-5 years;  make the per mu super rice yield of a hundredmu(1mu=0.0667ha.) cons ecutive field reach 800 kilos and more and the yield of a thousand mu consecutive field 750 kilos and more.

Thanks to their manyyear efforts, Yuan Longping and others have basically reali zed the phase I targets on super rice yield defined by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture and worked out a number of fine super rice species and combinations.

In 2000, among the 38 hundredmu demonstration bases under Yuan's direct guidan c e, there were 16 that had recorded their permu yield over 700 kilos with an annual average at 900 kilos and more.

It is briefed that the future studies will focus on the improvement of both quan tity and quality and the application of high technologies such as molecular techniques in improving the security and pest and diseases resistance of the seeds breeding process.


World Largest Dinosaur Footprints in China

Chinese geologists have recently unearthed a dinosaur footprints colony kept int act with clear lines along the Yellow River at Yong Jing county, Gansu Province.

The halfyear digging has unveiled a hundred and more wellshaped dinosaur f oo tprint fossils that were all buried over the sandy rocks on a mountain slope.  G rouped in ten, those footprints have been kept intact with clear indications of each group's marching direction. The largest footprint runs 1.5 meters long and 1.2 meters wide with paired forelimbs larger than the rear ones. It is reported that these are the largest of their kinds in the world discovered so far. Zhao X ijin, a palaeovertebrates expert with the Chinese Academy of Sciences has made t he examinations on the unearthed footprints. As is briefed, the unearthed area of the relics has reached 400 and odd square meters, housed the footprints of two  types of huge saurian footprints (walking on four limbs), one lean footprints (Coelurosaur walking on two limbs) and one bird footprints coexisting with the t races of dinosaur tail propping, creeping and droppings. It is a rare discovery in the world and a dinosaur relic of important scientific significance.  Its uniqueness such as the largest size, numerous genera and wellkept shapes has made  it the wonder in the world.

As is shown by the experts' preliminary examinations, these footprints may have recorded in two possible ages: late Jurassic Period (160 million years ago) or the earlier Cretaceous Period ( 100 million years ago). Experts are still working on the accurate age in which these footprints were stamped.  It is briefed that  the footprints were made on then lakeshores with well preserved mud and sand ca rried along and the hundred million year weathering process has turned them in to the fossils we have seen today. The water ripples and chaps on the solidified  mud can be seen clearly on the site. As is shown by the experts' confirmation t hese footsteps are left by the lizard like dinosaurs who fed on plants. Further studies will be made to decide what genera of dinosaurs have left these footprints.

Cloning Three Gorges Endangered Species

Yichangbased Three Gorges Botanic Garden subordinate to the Chinese Academy of Sciences has recently started to collect explants of Chinese dove tree、Oleum Linderae tree、Aesculus wilsonii, endan gered rare plant species under national protection, and will then inoculate and cultivate them into the formal candidates f or fast and agamogenesis experiments in the lab. As is shown by the investigatio n results, there are 37 unique endangered rare plant species below the water level of 135 m over the Three Gorge Dam area. Of them, Chinese dove tree and Taiwania flousiana enjoye the reputation of living fossils in the area. Before this, being the first plant cloning center established by the State Forestry Agency in the Three Gorges area, Yichang Three Gorges Botanic Garden has dedicated its studies to the fast and agamogenesis of fine timber species. So far they have completed the experimental cloning of some regular plants such as African chrysanthem um, color common calla and Actinidia sinensis. It is briefed that the said cloni ng experiment on the three endangered species, if it goes smoothly, will turn out the first group of cloned Three Gorge saplings in one month. 

China's Extracorporal Skin Making

Shanghaibased Changhai Hospital subordinate to No. 2 Military Medical School ha s recently performed a special skin grafting on a female patient whose body has suffered an 85% burned area. Her left wrist and back were covered with the substitute for regular human body skin and the wounds looked even, smooth and withy without much difference from the outlook of the regular human skin. It is reported that the Hospital has applied similar techniques to 20 burn patients.

With noncell human skin as the carrier, the researchers of Changhai Hospital ha ve cultivated heterogeneous cuticular cells of modified human cuticular cell growth genes through using cell cultivation techniques and cuticular cell growth gene modification and dyeing techniques. These cells were mixed with patients' own cuticular cells so as to produce the active compound skin. In the clinic applic ations, only 4 to 20 square centimeters of extremely thin skin layer need to be removed from patients' body for external cultivation. The expanded growth can be  used for extensive burnwound repair. The compound skin not only looks like the  regular skin but also remarkably reduces the scares and pigment deposition, improves the wound healing quality and creates a new approach to alleviating the skin shortage.

China's Major Breakthroughs in FootMouth Studies

Through as long as 18year studies and experiments, the Institute of Life Scienc es under Fudan University and the Institute of Animal Husbandry, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences have completed the genetic cloning of pig’s  type footmouth virus vaccine and synthesized antigen protein from colibacillus for the trial production in 100liter fermentation tank. In the meanwhile, they have conducted a series of animal immune experiments on the field and region scales, achieving remarkable results. The genetic engineering vaccine made in 100liter fermentation tank is the milklike fluid consisting of the emulsified active imm une protein extracted from bacteria. Having been injected with the said genetic engineering vaccines, the pigs were made be infected with type O footmouth viru ses. The experimental results have shown that the fermented vaccines are of fine  immune effects with their protection validity kept around 80%-100%. The said v a ccine carries neither infectious viruses nor side effects. The domestic animals, once vaccinated, may produce immunity for four to five months. The vaccine can be preserved for as long as one year under a temperature of 8 degree centigrade,  reaching the high quality standard for domestic animal applications. Manufactur ed in the fermenting process, the production of the new genetic engineering vacc ines resembles the one cultivating virus, friendly to automatic production proce ss with numerous merits such as fast, high yield, low costs and broad application perspectives.

At present, the said vaccines have been granted with national S&T invention pate nt and the certificate for commercialization issued by the Committee on Security Assessment of Agricultural Bioengineering Products subordinate to the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture.

Internationally Advanced Stomach Diagnosing Instrument

The researchers of Zhongke Scientific Instrument Development Co. Ltd., have rece ntly worked out the carbon 13 urea breathing mass spectrometer for diagnosing pyloric screw bacteria.

The said spectrometer works on the highly active endogenous urase of pyloric screw bacteria to tell the differences between isotopes carbon 13 and 12 through measuring breathing, detecting the existence of pyloric screw bacteria. The accura cy of the said technique may reach as high as 98%, the highest in the existing clinical medical means for pyloric screw bacteria detecting. The application of the said technique may avoid the painful gastroscope testing as well as be free f rom the radiation harm by carbon 14 urea breathing testing. It is a safe and accurate nowound diagnosing instrument . Deemed as a wonder to check out the stomach disease with a blow of breath of independent intellectual property right,the major technical indicators of the instrument have reached internationally advan ced level.


 China’s Ecological Function Conservation Zones

As is required by the Outlines on National Ecological Environment Protection iss ued by the Chinese State Council, China will establish a group of ecological function conservation zones to improve the ecological environment in the localities. To start the project on a sound track, the Chinese National Environmental Protection Agency has decided to create a group of experimental sites in the first place. Not long ago, China’s ten areas were called upon to be the sites, which k icked off the construction of China’s ecological function conservation zones.

These conservation zones are:

Yinshan Ke’erqin Sand Land National Ecological Functional Zone (Inner Mongo lia)  

ThreeRiver Plain National Ecological Function Conservation Zone (Heilongji ang Province)

Poyanghu Lake National Ecological Function Conservation Zone (Jiangxi Provin ce)

Dongtinghu Lake National Ecological Function Conservation Zone (Hu’nan Prov ince)

Ruo’ergaiMaqu National Ecological Function Conservation Zone (Sichuan and Gan su Provinces)

Yanlingshan Mountain National Ecological Function Conservation Zone (Shaanxi  Province)

Heihe River Valley National Ecological Function Conservation Zone (Gansu and  Inner Mongolia)

Yangtze River Origin National Ecological Function Conservation Zone  (Qingha i Province)

Yellow River Origin National Ecological Function Conservation Zone (Qinghai Province)

Talimu River National Ecological Function Conservation Zone (Xinjiang)  

China's Garbage Backfiring Disposal Technique

Thanks to their 8year painstaking efforts, Beijing Haoyeda Economy and Trade Co . have developed a brand new garbage disposal unit on the basis of coal backfire gasification technology.  Applying backfire gasification techniques in nonharm ful garbage disposal, the new technology is the first of its kind in the country with the dioxin emission reaching internationally advanced level. The technique  has not only been able to decompose harmful matters such as dioxin but also produce clean coal gas that can be utilized to generate electricity. The technology  makes the garbage gasification rate reach 80% with its performance/cost ratio b etter than that of electric thermal gasification technology abroad.


 CuttingEdge Technologies in Beijing International Week

A group of advanced and cuttingedge technologies with China's own intellectual property rights will make their debuts at the 4th ChinaBeijing International We ek for High Tech Industries and the associated ChinaBeijing International S&T F air scheduled to open in May 2001. During the session, the domestically advanced  mixed fuel commuter bus will impress the viewers while selfbody2000 blood col lector that is able to collect the blood lost in injury or operation through hig h tech means and make the patient who lost the blood recover his or her own bloo d will applaud for its international leading position. Other practical applicati ons such as virus hepatitis treatment technologies and equipment that help to tr igger the cell genes to activate killing cells will demonstrate its wonders. In addition, China Digital Industrial Association membered of 31 relevant governmental agencies and enterprises will display their latest result  digital equ ipment set. Along with the opening of the International Week, Jingkai Pioneering Garden, the  largest incubator in Beijing located at Beijing Economy and Technology Development Zone will cut its ribbon for the official operation. In the meanwhile, the Development Zone will host a forum on high tech industrial development and human resources development and publish the new regulations encouraging senior talents to work for the development zone. At present, the Pioneering Garden has been ap plying for the establishment of PostDoctorate Working Station with the postd octorate internship base under the construction.

       Comments or inquiries on editorial matters or Newsletter content should be directed to:Mr. Cheng Jiayi, Department of International Cooperation, MOST 15B, Fuxing Road Beijing 100862, PR China  Tel: (8610)68512650 Fax: (8610) 68512594, or Mr. Wang Jianping, Editor,NEWSLETTER, 15 Fuxing Road Beijing 100038, PR China, Tel:(8610) 68515544 Ext. 2580