China's Top Ten S&T Achievements in 2001
On January 23rd, 2002, 566 academicians from Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering voted out China's top ten S&T achievements in 2001 as follows:
1.Successful launch of China's first unmanned spacecraft “Divine Ship II”.
At 1:00 on January 10, 2001, the first home-made unmanned spacecraft “Divine II” was launched at Jiuquan Satellite Launching Center and sent into the prescribed orbit in ten minutes. The event marked a new progress for China's manned space activities and an eventful stride towards manned space flight. Divine II is an improvement based on its first prototype both in terms of system structure and technical functions. During its flight, the spacecraft made a series of experiments on space life, materials, astronomy, physics and microgravity.
2.Completion of China's Volume for Human Genome Charts
China has enjoyed the first completion of its share for human genome project, though it is the last that joined in the project. It took less than two years for Chinese scientists to complete the regional sequencing and make China the first who worked out its charts among 6 participating countries. Compared with the drafts, China's volume has seen an improvement from 90% to 100% in terms of coverage and from 99% to 99.99% of its accuracy.
3.Completion of Working Charts for Rice Genome and Associated Database
Scientists of Genome Bio-information Center and the Institute of Genetics both under the Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Hybrid Rice Research Center have jointly completed the sequencing of 2.2 billion base pairs with the coverage of both sequencing and genes reaching 95% and the accuracy of 90% of the regions' 99%. The said event constitutes a major breakthrough in China's life science studies.
4.China's Largest Seeds Resources Bank in the World
Sponsored by Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Agriculture, State Forestry Bureau and Chinese Academy of Sciences, and undertaken by the Institute of Crop Species Resources, the National Crop Species Resources Bank has made itself the world first in terms of the species resources it has so far maintained with the seeds in long term preservation reaching 330,000, making itself a rich base for species breeding and production. The quantity and biodiversity preserved by China for crop species resources have attracted the world attention.
5.Super Server “Dawning 3000”
The super server “Dawning 3000” developed by the Institute of Computation under Chinese Academy of Sciences has become the best home-made super server for its maximum computation speed at 403.2 billion times per second and 168 GB internal memory. So far it is the super server with the highest performance domestically.
Overall speaking, “Dawning 3000” has reached internationally advanced level with some of its technologies such as unit operation system registering the leading position in the world.
6.Successful Observation of Molecules' Internal Structures
Hou Jianguo, Yang Jinlong and Zhu Qingshi of China S&T University have for the first time in the world “shot” molecules images sharp enough for telling the single and double bonds between carbon atoms by taking advantage of channel scanning microscope. They assembled cage structured carbon 60 molecules on a single molecular film and froze the thermal oscillation of carbon 60 molecules at -268℃. The said direct single molecule imaging technique has provided effective means for manufacturing nanometer elements. The finding was published in UK based Nature.
7.Major Findings for Earlier Life Study
British journal Nature revealed on November 22, 2001 a breakthrough finding achieved by Prof. Shu Degan and others of Chinese Northwest University. The finding told the story on deuterostome over the fossils discovered in Chengjiang, China and these unique extinguished species were named as ancient insect animal. This is the sixth revealing of Prof. Shu's series scientific discoveries achieved in his study of life explosion in Cambrian age, which provided reliable evidence for full and accurate revelation of the nature and strength of life explosion in Cambrian age.
8.Breakthrough in New Nucleus Synthesizing
Researchers of Institute of Contemporary Physics under Chinese Academy of Sciences have applauded for their new breakthroughs in new nucleus synthesizing and study as they have worked out super heavy nucleus 259 Db in the world, which made China's new nucleus synthesizing and study advance into the gate of heavy zone.
Chinese scientists have for the first time in the international journal confirmed the pioneering nucleus 230 Ac for β－delayed fission and embarked on the delayed fission island long yearned for by nuclear scientists. The said two findings have been thought highly of by their international counterparts.
9.China's Land Resources' Housing
Under the direct leadership of National Agricultural Zoning Committee with an input of man power of 2 million and budget of RMB 1.3 billion, the so-called China's land resources house keeping campaign has turned out more than a hundred results such as monographs on China's land resources and survey techniques for investigating China's land resources, data collections for China's land resources survey, framing maps on land utilization at 1:500,000 scale, the nation's land utilization maps at 1∶2.5 million and 1∶4.5 million scales and photo albums for China's land resources survey and special feature film on the same topic.
These results have constituted the most complete, systematic and accurate data on China's land resources with their overall level reaching the internationally advanced.
10.Three Consecutive YES for Cotton Yield
Chinese Academy of Sciences has realized major breakthroughs in cotton growing techniques through organizing a number of research institutes to establish different demonstration zones, and explore new approaches to sustained fine quality and high yield of Xinjiang produced cotton with integrated techniques. As a result, they have maintained the world record yield for lint around 200 kilos-250 kilos per mu(1mu=0.0667ha.) for three consecutive years. Researchers have diffused the said cotton growing techniques to 2.4 million mu of cotton growing field in Xinjiang on a cumulative basis, recorded a yield increase of 57.71 million kilos and additional output value of RMB 560 million.
Top Ten Progresses on Basic Studies
A the end of 2001, Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology worked out through its sponsored selections top-ten news on the progresses achieved in the field of basic studies in the country. Placing more weight on major scientific progresses achieved in the country, the said selection process has eventually screened out the following news-making progresses:
1. China completes the framework chart for rice genome.
2. Chinese scientists have worked out the technologies able to expand optical disk's volume by one million times.
3. Chinese University of Science and Technology applauds for its major progress achieved on C60 nanometer material and associated composition studies.
4. Chinese and US scientists have jointly discovered the oldest marine crust debris in China.
5. Chinese scientists have worked out the demarcation layer between the Permian system and Triassic system in line with international standards.
6. Chinese scientists have advanced the history of macrocephalus mammals by 45 million years.
7. Chinese scientists have achieved innovative results on surgical treatment of liver and bile duct stones and associated complications.
8. Chinese scientists have made major progress on the studies of charmquark's even elements.
9. China has recorded two major breakthroughs in new nucleus synthesizing.
10. Chinese scientists have unveiled the mysteries causing A-1 brachydactylia.
Foreign Investment into Audio and Video Products Distribution
The Methods on the Management of China-Foreign Cooperative Distribution of Audio and Video Products jointly issued by the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Co-operation came into effect on January 10, 2002.
The rule in the Methods is that qualified foreign capital will be allowed into wholesale, retail and leasing of audio and video products in China and foreign investors will be allowed to create joint ventures of cooperative distribution businesses on audio and video products, though the foreign investor's equity shall not exceed 49%.
Pursuant to the Methods, foreign businesses, other economic organizations or individuals may, upon the approval of the Chinese Government and in the principle of equality and mutual benefit, create joint ventures with Chinese enterprises or other economic organizations for wholesaling, retailing or leasing of audio and video products including audio tapes, video tapes, records, laser audio and video discs.
As provided, both the Chinese and foreign partners of joint ventures for audio and video products distribution shall have no criminal records registered in the past three years before the application. In addition, a joint venture for audio and video products distribution shall be qualified for the following requirements: independent legal person capacity, meeting the conditions regulated by the state on audio and video products distribution; capital compatible with its business scale; the Chinese partner’s equity in the business shall not be less than 51% and the cooperation term shall not exceed 15 years.
Fingerprint Identification Techniques
Beijing based Subotaike Data System Co. Ltd. has recently inked an agreement with the U.S. based Scikejin Company on the cooperation in the field of biological identification techniques to jointly develop the latest techniques and products for biological identification of fingerprints.
Up to date, Subotaike has developed numerous hardware for biological identification applications such as fingerprint identifier, fingerprint mouse, fingerprint keyboard, fingerprint IC reader terminal, fingerprint POS terminal, fingerprint doorkeeper, fingerprint attendance system, fingerprint lock and fingerprint door and associated application systems and development tool packages. Integrated with a number of advanced techniques developed by the company such as digital fingerprint, built-in chip, smart card reading and writing, machine and electronic control database and network technology, the fingerprint based IC electronic ticket management system for Wulingyuan Scenic Spots in Zhangjiajie developed by the said company is the only fingerprint electronic entrance ticket system successfully put into operation in the country as well as the first example of integrated dynamic applications of fingerprint techniques to the outdoor environment featured with large population in different ages and skin colors.
Computer Coding and Decoding System
The Institute of Computer Sciences under Chinese Academy of Sciences and Intel recently announced that they have successfully worked out the computer coding and decoding system of internationally leading position. Named as open coding IA-64 coding and decoding system, the said result will find applications in mainstream chips to be manufactured by Intel in the next one or two decades. This is the first system turned out by Chinese scientists in collaboration with the largest chip manufacturer in the world and it will have its first applications in the world first class computer chips. The said system is of dual perspectives for both research platform and software development and major innovations in a number of key technologies with its stability and flexibility reaching the internationally advanced level.
Major Progress in China’s Genetic Chips
Mao Yumin, Dean of Life Science Institute of Fudan University and others have landed a breakthrough in the field of genetic chip studies on the basis of their 3-and-odd-year efforts. In September 1999, they for the first time created domestically glass based expression spectrum chip techniques of dual fluorescent lights testing and for the first time in the world incorporated 8,000 points from 4,000 new genes into glass based expression spectrum chips for testing a great number of new genes related to human placenta and embryo tissues, and the genes telling the differences between normal brain tissues and brain colloidal cancer.
Thanks to their experiments for over one year, they have successfully performed studies on the expression spectrums of 12,000 genes in different states and screened out 1000 and more new genes related to human growth and development and cancers. At present, these researchers are working together with selected partners to develop the first plant genetic expression spectrum chip, the first leukemia genetic expression chip and first cancer genetic expression chip in China. The said innovative and proprietary chips will be rolled off from internationally advanced production in line with the latest advanced technologies.
China’s First Human Hand Shaped Robot
It is reported that recently engineers of Harbin Industry University have successfully turned out the first human hand shaped robot in China, which is able to perform some sophisticated operations for astronauts in dangerous space environment.
The said robot is made into a shape and size both quite similar to that of human hand with 4 fingers connected with joints. The robot hand is composed of 96 functional sensors, 12 drivers and an external computer. All these sensors and drivers have proved very flexible and solid though they are tiny enough to sit comfortably in the beanpod or wholly in the palm or fingers. When in working condition, the sensors will transmit data on the object’s position, shape, size, temperature and hardness to the computer. The computer will then issue command to the drivers after data processing, allowing them to generate appropriate driving force to make the “hand” work accurately.
When manually controlled in a remote manner, the flexible robot hand is not only able to lift an object of 10 kilos vertically from the ground but also able to accurately do screwing and replacing components and parts with spanner and screw driver, or even able to lift an egg and play beautiful music over the piano.
China's CAD Software
On the basis of their two-year efforts, Guangzhou based Zhongwang Corp. has recently unveiled its proprietary Zhongwang CAD for graphic designing. It is briefed that Zhongwang has incorporated the latest domestic and international technologies into its CAD software and made it a most powerful graphic design tool in the country either in terms of its compatibility or reliability, fully capable of replacing AUTOCAD system in numerous functions. Zhongwang CAD is able to perform 98% of the functions of its overseas counterparts and even will do better on certain functions though with a price as low as 8% of that offered by its overseas counterparts, suitable for extensive applications in the fields of machinery, building construction, decoration, measuring and furniture making.
Economic Cancer Testing Chips
Dr. Hu Gengxi, a research fellow of Shanghai Institute of Cytobiology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences has recently worked out a protein based multiple-cancer-marking testing chip system. It is briefed that the system is able to perform simultaneous detection of 10 common original cancers on liver, lung, prostate, pancreas, stomach, esophagus, ovary, adenomyoma, colon and rectum and breast through testing 12 cancer markings. As shown by clinic applications in selected hospitals, the system’s idiocrasy has reached as high as 80% and more, fully capable of extensive applications in supporting clinic diagnosing and regular physical examination. The said system is of positive implications on earlier cancer diagnosing for lower income population due to its lower cost and simultaneous testing of 10 common cancers’ marking.
Comments or inquiries on editorial matters or Newsletter content should be directed to:Mr. Cheng Jiayi, Department of International Cooperation, MOST 15B, Fuxing Road Beijing 100862, PR China Tel: (8610)68512650 Fax: (8610) 68512594