China’s Unmanned Spacecraft
At 22:15, March 25, 2002, Divine Boat III was sent into sky by Long March II-F carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launching Center. The Chinese made spacecraft was scheduled to make 108 round trips along the earth in 7 days. During the flight, the spacecraft was continuously tracked, measured and controlled by Beijing based Space Control Center and the four spacecraft measuring vessels over three oceans and other ground control stations located in different places. The spacecraft performed a hundred and more actions such as unfolding solar panel, orbit movement, attitude determination, payload operation and etc.. When moving into the fifth roundtrip circling the earth, the onboard engines reserved for orbit changing started its ignition as scheduled to place the spacecraft into working orbit. On March 29 and 31, Beijing Space Control Center successfully made two rounds of orbit maintenance. At 16:54 April 1st, 2002, Divine Boat III made its successful landing in the middle section of Inner Mongolia, completing China’s third space flight and associated scientific and technical missions as prescribed.
It is reported that during the space flight, the spacecraft had seen stable and smooth performance of its different systems and payloads and collected large quantity of precious data on spacecraft flying and scientific experiments. It is briefed that the onboard pilot simulation payload has shown normal physiological signals and metabolic indicators, which confirms that the onboard cockpit environment control and life supporting system extremely important to manned space flight has fully satisfied medical requirements for manned flight.
Scientists opened the returned chamber on the recovering site and took out cytobiology reactor and protein experiment unit before its immediate shipment to Beijing in a chartered aircraft. It is briefed that scientists will conduct technical analysis and scientific studies of experimental instruments and samples aboard the spacecraft.
The spacecraft’s orbiter is now still working in the space on series scientific and application experiments such as multiple spectrum based remote sensing observations and earth environment monitoring.
China's Space Station
The head responsible for China's manned space project expressed recently that China would soon send its astronauts into space and set up its manned space station in the near future.
He added that China's manned space strategies were divided into three phases: at the early stage of this century, China would on the basis of its unmanned space flight experiments send its astronauts into space; develop space docking link-up techniques and launch its short-term manned space lab; and set up a long-term manned space station to address large space scientific experiments and application technologies. China's Divine Boat III has proved its full satisfaction to the requirements for manned space flight. As is shown by the experimental flight, the pilot simulation payload in both orbiter and return chamber may under the command of ground control station simulate man's major physiological activities such pulsing, heart beating, eating and discharging. In addition, the carrier rocket has been equipped with escaping flying and failure testing and handling system to protect astronaut's life. As is revealed by the analysis report, the technical conditions and associated measuring and control system of Divine Boat III are fully in line with that designed for manned spacecraft flying and both of its security and reliability have witnessed great improvement. The successful launch of Divine Boat series has demonstrated breakthroughs in China's development of different application systems for its manned space flight project and a raised level for its manned space flying technology and system engineering management mode.
He said thanks to their many-year efforts, Chinese scientists and engineers have overcome many key technologies related to manned space project, successfully developed advanced carrier rocket and spacecraft, established spacecraft system integrated with domestically sophisticated and cutting edge technologies, completed the construction of modern manned spacecraft launching pad, measuring and control network and spacecraft landing ground, and organized systematic training of Chinese astronauts.
Improved Conditions for Returned Overseas Chinese Students
Chinese authorities responsible for personnel affairs have expressed recently that after its accession to WTO, China will be involved in economic globalization in a wider scope and to some deeper extent. As a result, China will enter a new development phase for its opening efforts, which will bring up more opportunities for overseas Chinese students to establish their own business in their homeland.
It is briefed that recent years have witnessed Chinese authorities responsible for personnel affairs making great efforts to improve the working conditions for returned overseas Chinese students under the principle of "support studying abroad, encourage to return after studying and be free for coming and going" and encouraging overseas Chinese students to render their serve for their homeland.
China has published a series of preferential treatment policies encouraging high caliber overseas Chinese students to return and work for the prosperity of their own country. These policies have made special provisions on their concerned questions such as salaries, working conditions, housing and transportation, spouse employment, children's schooling and entering and leaving the country.
To create better working environment for returned Chinese students, 20 and odd working stations and 60 and more pioneering parks have been established in recent years to allow returned Chinese students to establish their businesses and spin off their research results.
In addition, Chinese government has provided financial support for pioneering activities of returned Chinese students. Since 1985, Chinese Ministry of Personnel has allocated RMB 200 million on a cumulative basis to support research activities of 4,000 and more returned Chinese students and 30,000 and more Chinese students coming home on a short term basis.
To make Chinese overseas students well connected, China has opened up a dedicated website for sharing information with Chinese overseas students and organized online S&T personnel recruitment together with local authorities such as Guangzhou, Liaonin and Shandong, created information platform for Chinese overseas students knowing the development of their homeland and recruitment opportunities.
The World First Rice Genome Chart
Chinese Academy of Sciences and the U.S. based Science jointly announced on April 4, 2002 that Chinese scientists have not only independently worked out rice genome sequencing chart but also successfully "interpret" the chart. The said development has made people able to genetically understand rice, a grain crop supporting the survival of half population on the earth. In addition, to their great surprise, scientists have discovered that the total number of rice genes is ranging between 46,022 and 55,615, almost twice that of human genome.
On April 5, 2002, Science published a cover story running 14 pages on Chinese rice genome sequencing working chart, introducing this major scientific endeavor accomplished independently by Chinese scientists. The working chart with 460 million genes constitutes the largest of its kind after the completion of human genome chart as well as the largest plant genome chart.
Chinese scientists announced its plan for working on super hybrid rice genome in May 2000. Unlike several other international rice genome projects, the sequencing material in Chinese scientists' lab is the super hybrid rice bred by Yuan Longping, the father of hybrid rice. The rice genome working chart worked out by Chinese scientists has basically covered the whole rice genome and 92% of rice genes. It is briefed that Chinese scientists have worked so hard that their workload became equivalent to a repeated sequencing of the same genome for ten times.
Precious Samples from Divine Boat III
The successfully returned chamber of Divine Boat III has revealed smooth performance of all its instruments aboard for scientific experiments and payload samples of important values for space science studies and application techniques. The preliminary analysis of these samples has shown that China has achieved important progresses in the fields of space life and materials.
It is briefed that the onboard scientific research activities include space based crystal growth experiment for proteins and other large molecules and biological cell growing experiment. The protein growing experiment employed Chinese made second generation protein crystal maker designed with two different protein crystal growing approaches and double temperature control system. Most of the 16 proteins selected for the experiment are derived from China's own biological resources. Scientists have obtained protein crystals of complete structures grown under microgravity environment, which is important for studying the relationship between protein structures and their special functions and is of the same importance to deriving and manufacturing biological products of high purity and effect as well as to biomedical products design.
In the field of biological cell growing, the scientists of Chinese Academy of Sciences have studied space based growing approaches for animal and plant cells that are of medicinal values and microgravity impacts on cell growth, reproduction and metabolism and biological activity secretion. It is reported that two of four payload cell samples may produce antitrichosanthis protein and antigen against chlamydia based sexual diseases.
In addition, Chinese experts have conducted explorative studies of space based growth of a number of other materials and associated preparations and techniques.
For examples, gallium antimonide crystal for making microwave elements, microwave integrated circuits and super high speed integrated circuits; tellurium-zinc-cadmium crystal for making base materials needed by infrared sounding equipment; bismuth silicate, an oxide crystal for making optic information storage materials and other new alloy materials of important application perspectives in the field of space and aviation. Studies on these materials will help scientists improve their understanding of the physical properties of material preparation and provide guidance for the improvement of ground materials manufacturing techniques, which are of great potential economic values. Relevant research institutes under the Chinese Academy of Sciences are at present working on in-depth analysis and studies of the returned samples.
Now Divine Boat III remains working in the orbit. The onboard China's first medium resolution imaging spectrograph will conduct extensive multiple spectrum remote sensing experiments on oceans, land and atmosphere. In addition, instruments such as solar ultraviolet spectrograph, solar constants monitor, earth radiation budget instrument will carry out other environment monitoring and space environments and high-level atmosphere based watch. It is briefed that all these instruments will work on in-the-orbit experiments and application studies in a scheduled six- month flight.
China's New Fanjet Turbine
No. 2 China Space Industrial Group has recently passed the approval check of its designed fanjet turbine, which implies a pass issued for its applications in Chinese military aircraft.
It is reported that the said new turbine is designed with a reliable structure for stable performance and its major technical performance has basically reached military technical indicators and application requirements. Designed in line with required standards, the turbine has been approved for its specifications.
It is briefed that the said fanjet turbine developed by China has put itself in line with the development trend of its international counterparts in terms of both design and techniques. When going into massive production, it may save huge foreign exchanges in procuring similar device from abroad and provide advanced aircraft engines that are urgently needed by Chinese military forces to strengthen national defense capability.
Let Buildings Feel Temperature
Scientists of Guangzhou Energy Institute under the Chinese Academy of Sciences have recently developed high temperature geothermal pumping system and found its application in a building of more than 10,000 square meters.
Under the support of the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology and on the basis of their many-year painstaking studies, Guangzhou Energy Institute have eventually turned out a high temperature geothermal pumping system able to flow out the water as hot as 75 ℃, which is fully desirable for direct heating applications or the water of 60 ℃ for daily applications with the help of thermal transformer. The said system has been working smoothly for Foreign Experts Building of Chinese Academy of Sciences for two months. It is reported that to allow self-adjusted temperature, the building was in the past equipped with three different systems respectively for heating supply from heating network, cooling from central air conditioner and daily hot water from oil burning boiler, which had not only consumed large investment but also occupied large area with high running costs and pollution exhausted by oil burning. Now the new geothermal pumping system has replaced the three old systems with its electricity saving reaching as high as 70% and heating costs being cut by half.
Accelerated Digital TV Development
As is disclosed recently by the State Development Planning Committee, China will soon embark on research and development of digital TV systems of advanced technical level and prosperous market potentials and associated industrial projects. In addition China will accelerate standards formulation process for cable and ground digital TV systems, carrying out digital TV experiments and trial broadcasting with its own proprietary technologies, equipment and systems as much as possible, and shooting digital TV programs so as to get fully prepared for diving into domestic digital TV market. Priorities will be given to the development of digital TV components, key products and dedicated software with more support for major innovative digital TV projects so that a proprietary digital TV manufacturing system of industrial strength will be developed.
It is briefed that in 2002 priorities will rest on the development of digital TV terminal products and key components and associated industrialization, digital TV signal transmission equipment and associated industrialization and digital TV application supporting system and associated industrialization. The State Development Planning Committee will accept applications for these projects and work out its preliminary judgement of the applications at the end of April, 2002.
China's Medium Speed Magnetic Suspension Vehicle
By April 6, 2002, China's first medium speed magnetic suspension locomotive has been smoothly running for 2000 km. Developed by China National Defense S&T University, the said suspension locomotive has demonstrated fine technical performance up to the level for practical operation. Running over an experimental rail line with a total length of 204 meters including a turning section running for 100 meters at a slope of 40‰ and rail width of 2 meters, the suspension locomotive weighs of 20 tons with its head compartment as long as 15 meters and 3 meters in width, capable of housing 130 and more passengers and a running speed at 150 km an hour.
The successful construction and operation of this proprietary medium speed magnetic suspension locomotive makes China among the internationally advanced in terms of its suspension locomotive manufacturing techniques and engineering level, and become one of the few countries in the world capable of manufacturing and development of magnetic suspension locomotives and operational lines.
China Solved Derail Puzzle
Train derail puzzle, a headache that has troubled railway transportation business for a century and more has recently been solved by Prof. Zeng Qingyuan, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering working for Zhongnan University.
Prof. Zeng started to attack this railway transportation cancer from 1972. He and his aides have developed brand new train derail theory on the basis of their computer based mathematical model analysis and practical measuring. The said theory is not only able to interpret many complicated derail causes beyond explanations in the past train derail events, but also able to make accurate prediction for possible derail signs for taking timely preventive measures with its reliability reaching as high as 99%.
Comments or inquiries on editorial matters or Newsletter content should be directed to:Mr. Cheng Jiayi, Department of International Cooperation, MOST 15B, Fuxing Road Beijing 100862, PR China Tel: (8610)68512650 Fax: (8610) 68512594