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The Ministry of Science and Technology
People's Republic of China

N0.314 November 30,2002

* The Internationally Aided Garbage Disposal

* The Joint Revelation of Dog's Origin

* China-Russia S&T Results Diffusion

* China's Face Identification Technology

* Modern Tech Identifies Origins

* The Last Phase for Panda Cloning

* Panda Reproduction Hormone Cloned


The Internationally Aided Garbage Disposal

The Report on Management Reform and Capacity Building for Chinese Urban Solid Garbage Disposal, an EU and UNDP financed project has shown the smooth development in Mianyang City, Sichuan Province. As is briefed, in 1998 the United Nations listed Mianyang City in west China and Zhangzhou City in east China as the experimental sites for urban garbage disposal management.

The said report is the result of solid garbage disposal management reform in the two cities and will serve as the scientific urban garbage management role model for China and other developing countries, providing theoretical support for eventually realizing harmless, downsizing and resources friendly process of urban garbage disposal.

In March 2000, the Project was officially launched in Mianyang City. The municipal government decided to make its urban garbage management system shift from a governmental behavior gradually onto the track of market behavior through the reform of the related management system, charging policies and investment modes, so as to realize the industrial process of garbage management and make it a new economic growth point.  The major detailed practices adopted by the municipality are: raise the threshold level of garbage management fees so as to add to the huge input needed for garbage disposal; relentlessly promote the classified collection of garbage so as to directly and effectively reduce the cost for garbage disposal; create diversified investment channels and strengthen the effective input in the construction of environmental and sanitation infrastructures.

The Joint Revelation of Dog's Origin

The Sweden Royal Academy of Sciences and Kunming Zoology Institute under the Chinese Academy of Sciences have jointly revealed the dog's origin through their in-depth study of dog's chondriosome DNA diversities.

Both Sweden and Chinese scientists confirmed that all dogs in the world have the same genetic foundation originated from south Asia, though they scattered themselves all over the world in the late period of time. The finding was published by Sciences as a cover story on November 22, 2002. On the basis of studying 654 dogs gathered from the five continents and analyzing the base pair sequencing of their chondriosome DNA inherited from their maternal side, the joint study team discovered that all these dogs have almost the identical genes. They concluded that the friendship between humans and dogs may be traced back to 15,000 years ago. At that time humans dwelled in east Asia started to tame animals such as wolves and the domesticated dogs were brought to Europe and even to America through the Bering Strait by travelers in the late long period of time.

China-Russia S&T Results Diffusion

Not long ago China and Russia jointly launched their S&T results diffusion and application campaign in Zhejiang Province. During the one-week campaign, 45 Russian scientists and officials had a series of S&T cooperation talks with their Chinese counterparts in industries and research institutes in Zhejiang Province. Meanwhile, the experts from Russian Academy of Sciences and other Russian research institutes made their study and trade tour in Hangzhou, Ningbo, Quzhou, Jinhua and Zhoushan. Research institutes and enterprises from the two countries officially signed 20 and odd S&T cooperation agreements covering numerous high tech fields such as electronic information, silicon materials, engineering plastics, fine chemicals, instruments and meters and biomedicines.

Zhejiang Province started its bilateral S&T cooperation with its Russian counterpart in the last decade of the previous century.  As is shown by the incomplete statistics, so far the Province has implemented 40 and odd S&T cooperation projects, which greatly enhanced the S&T innovation capacity of the Province.  Being one of the three national China-Russia S&T cooperation parks in the country, Zhejiang Juhua China-Russia S&T Cooperation Park is the only one that is dominated by industrial enterprises and honored as the role model for the cooperation in high tech development and associated industrialization between the two countries.


Chinese Scientists Sequenced Rice Genes

On November 21, 2002, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences jointly announced that Chinese scientists have independently completed the accurate sequencing of No. 4 chromosome under the International Rice Genome Project. Being a 10% contribution to the said international project, the effort has constituted the largest genome single-strip chromosome sequencing completed by China. The sequencing charts worked out by Chinese scientists were published in UK based journal Nature.

It is briefed that Chinese scientists have employed clone walking approach to conduct the accurate sequencing of No. 4 chromosome of rice genome and worked out 35 million base pairs with an accuracy of 99.99%, covering 98% of the full range of the chromosome, an internationally recognized standard for genome sequencing charts.

In addition to the completion of the chromosome sequencing, the Chinese scientists also made a number of relevant studies such as the predictive analysis of the genes contained in No. 4 chromosome, identifying 4,658 genes at their right positions on the chromosome, which laid a foundation for further knowledge of the functions of these genes; sequencing the complete centromere of No. 4 chromosome, the first of its kind in the world for higher living creatures, which created a structural basis for studying the functions of the centromere, the chromosome stability and replication, and laid a foundation for developing transferable artificial rice and plant chromosomes.

China's Proprietary Microprocessor

Shanghai Fudan Microelectronics Co. Ltd. has recently worked out a high performance built-in 32-digit microprocessor with its proprietary IC design technology. It is reported that named as Shenwei I (Wonder Power), the chip is a typical sophisticated circuit completely compatible with currently prevailing X86 command sets and is rated the domestically most advanced X86 based CISC microprocessor. The successful development of the chip will raise China's microprocessor technology in a striding-across manner to a higher level. The chip may find its extensive applications in numerous fields such as industrial automation, electronic imaging, electronic banking, intelligent terminal equipment and aviation and space industry.

China's FaceIdentification Technology

On November 26, 2002, the Institute of Computation Sciences under the Chinese Academy of Sciences announced that it had landed a major breakthrough in the core technologies measuring and identifying facial images after its successful identification 8,000 and more humane faces.

Being the result from a major project under the National 863 Program, on the site scene of the demonstration the new technology may allow computer system to capture a human face within 1/10 or 1/20 second through camera lens and complete the whole process of identification within one second.

The Institute has achieved major progresses in human face measuring, features extraction, facial identification and confirmation with its overall human face identification capability reaching the advanced level against its overseas counterparts.

It is briefed that the Institute has created a joint lab together with Yinchen Network S&T Co. Ltd. and found eight major applications in banking security management system, conference representative identification confirmation system, facial image based door keeping system and facial image attendance checking system.

A New Level of the Study on the Improved Chinese Eucommia

The project on screening fine Eucommia species that consumed the 16-year hard working efforts of the researchers at Northwest S&T University for Agriculture and Forestry has recently passed its experts' verification checks.  Experts believed that the result has filled up a blank both at home and abroad in exploring the unavailability of eucommia species with high medicinal and glue contents and made China sit in the leading position of the international eucommia species breeding.

The Chinese scientists started eucommia species screening from 1985. They worked on fine eucommia species sources and fine species screening in the first place and selected 110 eucommia trees from Shaan'xi, Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou. Afterwards, they launched the study on the juvenile and fast reproduction processes of these eucommia trees and turned out 40 clones for testing growing. On the basis of the physiological and biological testing, medicinal component and glue content analysis and anti-adversity testing, they established the world first eucommia species screening indicator system with effective medicinal component as the major indicator while taking into account the growth volume and resistance together with fuzzy integrated evaluation technique. They also studied the property stability and genetic gains of these fine species and eventually produced fine eucommia species named Qinzhong I, II, III and IV of high medicinal and glue contents, fast growth and strong adversity resistance.

Modern Tech Identifies Origins

With the assistance of the modern technologies, Chinese scientists have revealed the mysterious origins of 8000 and more terracotta soldiers and horses unearthed in an area of 10 kilometers near the Emperor Shihuang Qin's mausoleum. In 1999 the Museum of Qin Terracotta Soldiers and Horses and High Energy Physics Institute under the Chinese Academy of Sciences jointly launched their initiatives to look for the origins of these clay soldiers and horses. Scientists collected terracotta soldiers and horses samples over tan extensive areas centered around the Emperor Shihuang Qin's mausoleum, the soil samples of different depths from selected sites near the mausoleum, and clay fetus from other renowned porcelain kilns. After that, they conducted neutron activity analysis and picked out 32 elements from each sample. The comparison and analysis results have shown that the clay used for making these terracotta soldiers and horses are closely related to the black soil layer near the mausoleum but distant from the loess layer over the same site and even more distant to the clay used by other renowned porcelain kilns.  On the basis of these investigations, scientists believed that the raw clays for making these terracotta soldiers and horses may come from the black soil layer in Zaoyuan Village, 9.5 km southwest from the mausoleum and the black soil layer of Gaoxing Village, 5.5 km east of the mausoleum, or from the black soil layer in the other places nearby.

Before the investigation, Chinese archeologists had discovered an old kiln relic near the mausoleum. The said finding was published in the 10th issue of the journal Chinese Sciences.

China's High Orbiting Accuracy

It is reported that the current international space orbiting technical standards on measuring and controlling require that the error between ground measuring values and the actual spacecraft orbiting be confined within 300 meters. During their three experimental flights, Chinese Shenzhou series spacecraft narrowed down the orbiting errors to the professional threshold of 100-meter level. The improved orbiting accuracy has ensured the smooth and stable operation and safe and accurate return of Shenzhou spacecraft and demonstrated China's world advanced level in sophisticated orbiting technology in manned spacing.

So far Chinese scientists have landed breakthroughs in the related key technologies such as space vehicle transparent control, return control and landing forecasting, high speed data processing and visualized monitoring and displaying, which have laid a solid foundation for realizing China's manned space flight in the near future.

The Last Phase for Panda Cloning

Prof. Chen Dayuan, chief scientist of Panda Cloning Team under the Zoology Institute, the Chinese Academy of Sciences revealed recently that China is now working on the last technical puzzle that will lead to the birth of the cloned panda.

He briefed that panda cloning has three major difficulties: compatibility of heterogeneous karyoplasm, embryo development and individual cloning. So far Chinese scientists have successfully passed the former two technical gates.  If it survives the development phase in the heterogeneous animal, the embryo will become the first cloned baby panda in the world. Prof. Chen expressed that Chinese scientists have planted the cloned embryo in the uterus of the domestic cat and the associated DNA testing has shown that the fetus has got developed in the cat's body. If the cat manages to give the birth to the clone baby panda, a wonder will turn up in the life history of the earth.

With the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou Panda Research Center and Sichuan Wolong Panda Protection Center as the collaborative partners, the said cloning project started from creating the panda body cells bank by collecting the cells from baby pandas that were just born, 1.5-year old female pandas and 12-year old or older female and male pandas for the purpose of experiments and gender control.

It is briefed that preparing panda embryo stem cells constituted a complicated process in panda cloning study.  During the experiment, Chinese scientists employed the technical line of inducing heterogeneous cloning with homogeneous one and obtained the restructured embryo for further development in cat's uterus.

Panda Reproduction Hormone Cloned

The researchers of Chengdu Panda Reproduction Research Base and Zhejiang Key Lab on Cell and Genetic Engineering under Zhejiang University have recently applauded for their obtaining the cloned genes related to panda reproduction through panda reproduction hormone studies. The cloned genes can be used to stimulate the oestrus and ovulation of penned female pandas and enhance their reproduction capability.

It is briefed that it is extremely difficult for the penned pandas to reproduce and get conceived and the survival rate of baby pandas is also low. Most female pandas have defected incretion in their reproduction system, which interrupts their regular oestrus and ovulation and constitutes a major reason causing low reproduction capability. Experts believe that the cloned panda reproduction hormone may help to readjust the incretion in female pandas' reproduction system, enhance the oestrus and greatly improve their reproduction capability.

China's OLED Screen

The Organic Photoelectric Lab of Tsinghua University has recently developed China's first full color OLED, which marks China's internationally advanced level in OLED technologies.

It is briefed that the Lab will complete its pilot development in the near future and expect limited production of its OLED products in the first half of 2003 for the applications in mobile telecommunication and instruments and meters manufacturing. It is planned to gear up to its mass production in 2004.

China's Digital Spiral Bevel Gear Cutting Machine

China's first spiral bevel gear cutting machine recently made its debut at Zhongnan University. Its birth has broken up the technology monopoly imposed by overseas manufacturers and filled up a blank in China's machine tool manufacturing. China has now become the third country after the U.S. and Germany in the world that is able to manufacture such cutting machines.

       Comments or inquiries on editorial matters or Newsletter content should be directed to:Mr. Cheng Jiayi, Department of International Cooperation, MOST 15B, Fuxing Road Beijing 100862, PR China  Tel: (8610)68512650 Fax: (8610) 68512594