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The Ministry of Science and Technology
People's Republic of China

N0.316 December 20,2002

* China and the U.S. Renewed Civic Cooperation

* China-UK Cooperation on E-Science

* Solar Neutrino Loss Unveiled

* The First Joint Venture for Securities

* Refined Rice Genome Charts

* China's Advanced Organic Light Emitting Display 


* China's High Speed Train over 300km/h


China and the U.S. Renewed Civic Cooperation

On December 11, 2002, Xu Guanhua, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology and Donald Evans, the U.S. Secretary of Commerce jointly signed an agreement to renew the Protocol on the Cooperation in the Field of Industrial Technologies and S&T Information and Policies between the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology and the U.S. Department of Commerce.

The Protocol on the Cooperation in the Field of Industrial Technologies and S&T Information and Policies between the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology and the U.S Department of Commerce was singed in 1979 under the framework of the China-US Agreement on the Cooperation in the Field of Science and Technology. The Protocol has survived several renewals and modifications. This time both parties have agreed to renew the Protocol for another ten years. Under the Protocol, the personnel from both countries conducted exchange visits, jointly sponsored seminars on different topics and launched a series of cooperation and exchange activities in relevant fields, which has made the cooperation a fine platform for deepening the mutual understanding of small and medium S&T businesses in both countries and the further cooperation on mutual benefit basis, promoting the technical advancement and economic and trade cooperation between them.

As defined by the renewed Protocol, both parties will in the future focus their cooperation on the exchange of S&T reports and literature, the development and improvement of information system and associated database, studies on S&T policies, laws, regulations and by-laws concerned with intellectual property protection, foreign investment and technical permission, industrial pre-competition study and technical standards. Exchanges and cooperation aiming at policies, plans and management for promoting the development of small and medium-sized businesses are also the big topics for future cooperation.

Minister Xu made his trip to the United States at the invitation of John Marburger, Director, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the President's assistant in S&T. During his visit, Minister Xu also signed on behalf of the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology the Protocol on the Cooperation in the Field of Agricultural Science and Technology between the PRC Ministry of Science and Technology and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Arrangement for S&T Personnel Exchanges and Cooperation Projects between China and USA with the U.S. Natural Science Foundation. In addition, he held talks with the head of the U.S. Department of Energy and addressed audience in the University of Maryland on China's S&T policies after attending the Opening Ceremony of China-US S&T Park at the University.

China-UK Cooperation on E-Science

Pursuant to the framework agreement on intergovernmental cooperation in the field of e-science signed at the 2nd China-UK Joint Committee on Science and Technology in October 2001, the first China-UK Workshop on E-science and Bioinformation was held in UK with the participation of the Chinese delegation composed of the officials from the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology and Chinese scientists, officials from UK Research Council on Biotechnology and Biology and 20-odd British experts and scholars. Chinese and British scientists discussed and exchanged their views in five related disciplines including bioinformation, pharmaceutical design, biodiversity, structural genome and bionetworking construction.

After the meeting, both parties signed a memorandum on cooperation and agreed that the second session of the workshop be held at the appropriate time in China.

Solar Neutrino Loss Unveiled

The study team made up of scientists from Japan, the U.S. and China has recently discovered neutrino loss phenomena in nuclear reactor, and for the first time in the world confirmed the existence of oscillation in solar neutrino through studying artificial neutrino source, which in turn confirms that such oscillation is the cause for neutrino loss.

Starting from February, nearly 100 scientists from Japan, the U.S. and China made observations of the neutrino in nuclear reactor through Japan based detector in Kamioka and discovered the phenomena of neutrino loss in the reactor. The finding means there is neutrino oscillation in the reactor, which leads to the becoming of another kind of neutrino that was undetected.

The said discovery presents a process similar to solar neutrino loss, which helps to exclude other possible explanations for solar neutrino loss. The experiment has also worked out the only quantitative interpretation of solar neutrino oscillation and reached the conclusion that neutrino mass is not equal to zero.

China-Denmark Joint Pig Gene Sequencing

It was disclosed at the 6th bilateral meeting on China-Denmark Domestic Pig Genome Project held in Wenzhou, on Nov. 29, 2002, that Chinese and Danish scientists have been working on domestic pig sequencing since July 2000. So far both parties have invested USD 50 million in the project and the efforts have resulted in 25% coverage of the domestic pig's genome with an accuracy of 99%.

The project is implemented in three phases: phase I is for previewing genome. So far 1 million genetic expression marks, or so-called road maps have been found. In phase II, scientists will prepare genetic sequencing framework charts and use the so-called "bird gun method" to find out 95% of the genes and their positions in chromosome. The last phase will get to the study of gene functions and their applications in breeding and medicines.

It is worth mentioning that scientists have so far used five domestic pig varieties for the sequencing so as to tell the differences on their sequencing and sort out fine quality and functional genes.

China-Holland Cooperation for Power Supply

At the beginning of 2002, the Chinese government signed a cooperative agreement with Dutch government on supporting the so-called Silk Road Illumination Project, an international poverty alleviation effort aiming at providing electric power to the remote areas in Xinjiang Autonomous Region through installing solar power generation system.  The project is budgeted for a total investment of USD 25 million with USD 15 million contributed by the Dutch government and the rest by the local government. The project will eventually solve the power supply for one third of the residents in the area through installing 78,000 sets of the solar power generation system. Since its implementation from earlier this year, the project has installed 4500 sets of solar power generation system in farms and animal husbandry areas in Xinjiang.

The First Joint Venture for Securities

On December 19, 2002, the China Securities Regulatory Commission officially approved the establishment of Huaou International Securities Co. Ltd., China's first securities business jointly created with foreign partners since its accession to WTO.

With a registered capital of RMB 500 million, Huaou International Securities is controlled by Xiangcai Securities by equity of 67% with French Lyons taking the rest 33%.  The joint venture will be allowed to underwrite stocks including common shares in both RMB and foreign exchanges and bonds including government and corporate bonds, providing brokerage services for common shares in foreign exchanges, bonds including government and corporate bonds and self-management and running other businesses approved by the Committee. The said development marked a substantive expansion of foreign businesses in China's capital market and fruitful cooperation.

As is briefed, according to the approval conditions by the Committee, Huaou International Securities is expected to complete its incorporation not later than June 18, 2003 and will become part of the Chinese security market and development after being granted with its security business license by the Chinese Securities Watchdog Committee.


Refined Rice Genome Charts

On December 12, 2002, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the State Development Planning Commission and the National Natural Science Foundation jointly announced that Chinese scientists had completed their refined Chinese rice DNA sequencing charts and physical genome charts, the first of their kinds in the world. The world eye-catching findings have laid a genetic foundation for understanding the biological characteristics of rice and a solid foundation for identifying and screening the genes of economic values.

The hybrid rice varieties with Chinese rice genes have taken 80% of the hybrid rice produced in the world. The Chinese rice genome charts refined on the basis of their working charts have made available the data urgently needed by scientists working on rice and plant biological studies in the world, and laid a solid foundation for the studies of functional genome and proteinome. The development is of major implications on the thorough understanding of the natural course of growth, development, diseases resistance, adversity resistance and high yield of rice as well as on promoting genetic breeding studies.

The refined rice genome charts completed by Chinese scientists covered 97% of the genetic sequencing with 97% of the genes being accurately positioned on chromosomes.  The single base pair accuracy that has covered 94% chromosome positioning reached 99.99%.  With the internationally acknowledged refining standards, the charts are currently the only high accuracy, large-scale plant genome charts in the world built on the methodology of full genome bird gun sequencing. The charts have molecular mark spectrums in and among rice varieties. These marks can be used to identify the origin and evolution of genes, tracking their distributions in the genetic communities and hybrid making and providing guidance for genetic breeding.

Chinese scientists have also worked out 60,000 rice genes and made them into full genome chips, powerful tools for functional genome studies and massive identification of the genes contributed to disease resistance, high yield and fine quality.

Unveiling the Mysteries of Emperor Qin's Mausoleum

Chinese experts have recently kicked off their archeological expedition over Emperor Qin's Mausoleum with integrated remote sensing and geophysical technologies that will cause no damages to the underground palace. Scientists will use numerous advanced means such as the ground elastic wave method, the magnetism, the geological radar, the high-density electric method, and the gravity and mercury measurement to probe the underground mysteries. The expedition is briefed to be the largest in investment and the highest in technology in China's underground archeological expedition over Emperor Qin's Mausoleum.

Chinese archeologists will use the internationally advanced 3-D technology to find the evidence if there is an underground mausoleum for the emperor, collecting information on the boundary, shape, structures, depth and possible collapse of the underground palace. The expedition will also try to prove the folk saying that the emperor's mausoleum went through underground spring and used mercury to embody the rivers and seas on his territory.

It is briefed that experts will conduct full range sounding and measurement over an area of 56.25 km2 where the emperor's mausoleum is located and the phase I project will be completed in next September.

Emperor Qin's Mausoleum is the largest and the most magnificent imperial tomb in China's history. Unfortunately people have so far known very little about the exact location, size and depth of the mausoleum. This high tech expedition has been listed under China's National 863 Program for high tech development.

China's Advanced Organic Light Emitting Display Elements

Tsinghua University's research project of the study on monocolor molecule organic light emitting display techniques and associated driving technology has recently passed the experts' verification. Experts believe that the monocolor molecule organic light emitting display elements manufactured with the technology have had the best quality among their international counterparts in terms of resolution, illumination, contrast and consumption.

The Dept. of Chemistry, Tsinghua University started its study on organic light emitting display technology in 1996 and established its organic photoelectronic lab on the basis of the study in 2001. The lab mainly works on organic light emitting display technology, organic solid solar batteries and organic thin film transistors. In a short period of several years, the lab has turned out rich findings and results with applications or achievements for 20 and more patents on organic light emitting display both at home and abroad.


China's High Speed Train over 300km/h

The home-made "China Star" electric locomotive has recently made its record speed as high as 321.5 per hour on a trail run. The historic breakthrough was made on the railroad running between Qinhuangdao and Shenyang for a total length of 404.64 km with a designed speed for 200 km per hour. With an improved 250 km per hour precondition, the rail line opened up in June is expecting its trial operation in early next year.

It is briefed that China's locomotive manufacturers have turned out Pioneering and China Star locomotives with fine dynamic performance. The key components of these locomotives such as the walking system, the control system, the main converter and pulling engines are made on China's own and China has possessed the intellectual properties over the core technologies and major equipment. The construction of the rail line between Qinhuangdao and Shenyang has made China's railway industry embark on a raised high speed from 160 km per hour to 200 km per hour.

The integrated testing has shown that the technical facilities running along the said rail line is safe and reliable and locomotives may easily run on a high speed while keeping comfortable smoothness.

China's First 900,000 kw Stator

On December 20, 2002, China's first 900,000 kw generator stator manufactured by Shanghai Turbogenerator Co. Ltd. was delivered to its buyer. With a weight of 505 tons, length 12 m, width 4.5 m and height 4.92 m, the stator was made with applications of Siemens technologies and processes.  It is reported that the stator is not only the first of its kind in China but also the first key component for million kw level generators made in Asia, which has demonstrated China's full capacity for manufacturing the world class power generators of large volumes.


High Volume Battery

Thanks to its enhanced technical development strength, the optimized battery internal composition and the application of high volume electrodes, Guangdong based Desai Corp. has recently worked out a unique high volume commercial battery with a volume between 800-1000 mAh, or 20%-40% higher than that of the similar specification conventional battery, desirable for frequent phone call making or long stand-by time needed in business activities and travelling.

At present, the said high volume commercial batteries have found applications in many brandname mobile phones such as Motorola's V66, 388, Nokia 8210, and Siemens 3568.  The company briefed that it would soon turn out other more specifications.

Tisnghua's Smart Digital Camera

Not long ago Tsinghua Ziguang made the debut of its Unis DC4300 digital camera.  Being the smart digital camera, the new product is of 1.3 million- pixel CMOS with a maximum image resolution for 2 million pixels.  The pictures taken by the camera show vivid color and sharpness as advanced image and color optimization techniques are applied.

       Comments or inquiries on editorial matters or Newsletter content should be directed to:Mr. Cheng Jiayi, Department of International Cooperation, MOST 15B, Fuxing Road Beijing 100862, PR China  Tel: (8610)68512650 Fax: (8610) 68512594